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University of Wollongong Australia

Referencing: Books

APA 6 - Books

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Format In-Text Reference Reference List

Chapter in an edited book

The author of the chapter is cited in the in-text citation.

For multiple authors of a chapter follow the same rules as for books with multiple authors.

In the Reference List you should invert the chapter authors' names but do not invert the book editors' names.

The name of the book editor should be preceded by the word In.

Enclose the abbreviation (Ed.) for Editor and (Eds.) for Editors after the last editor's name.

For a book with no editor, include the word In before the book title.

 

Direct quote (page number/s must be included)

'When phylogeneticists assess species relationships, they analyse the similarities of traits among species and present the results as species arranged on a phylogenetic tree' (Ryan, 2005, p. 296)

Paraphrasing (use of page number/s encouraged)

A study by Ryan (2005) argues that...
Ryan, M. J. (2005). Evolution of behaviour. In J. Bolhuis & L. Giraldeau (Eds.), The behaviour of animals (pp. 294-314). Oxford, England: Blackwell.
Compilation textbook (Kennedy & Richards, 2009) or Kennedy and Richards (2009)

Example for the whole compilation textbook

Interprofessional practice in health and human services. (2009). Melbourne, Australia: Oxford University Press.

 

Example of a single chapter from a compilation textbook

Kennedy, R. & Richards, J. (2009). Managing Information. In Interprofessional practice in Health and Human Services HLT1IPB (pp. 130-152). Melbourne, Australia: Oxford University Press. (Reprinted from Integrating Human Service Law & Practice, (2nd ed.), pp. 79-101, by R. Kennedy & J. Richards, 2007, Melbourne, Australia: Oxford University Press).

 

Different edition

Direct quote (page number/s must be included)

This works as a "single fabric element" (Stallings, 2007, p. 502).

Paraphrasing (use of page number/s encouraged)

Stallings (2007) notes that managers must understand the technologies on the market (p. 21).

 

Stallings, W. (2007). Data and computer communications (8th ed.). Upper Saddle River, NJ: Pearson Prentice Hall.

eBook

Give the version of the book using [ ].

Direct quote (page number/s must be included)

Children with ADHD "can struggle to sit still even when eating" (Le Messurier, 2010, p. 60).

Paraphrasing (use of page number/s encouraged)

Le Messurier (2010) finds the demands on teachers are increasing (p.104).
 

With doi

Gregoriou, G. N. (Ed.). (2006) Advances in risk management [Palgrave Connect version]. doi:10.1057/9780230625846

Without doi

Le Messurier, M. (2010) Teaching tough kids: Simple and proven strategies for student success [MyiLibrary version]. Retrieved from http://0-lib.myilibrary.com.alpha2.latrobe.edu.au/home.aspx

 

Edited book

In a reference to an edited book, treat the editor as you would an author. Enclose the abbreviation (Ed.) for Editor and (Eds.) for Editors after the last editor's name.

Direct quote (page number/s must be included)

Boag argues that... (2008, p. 45).

Paraphrasing (use of page number/s encouraged)

Boag (2008) clearly argues that ...

 

Boag, S. (Ed.). (2008). Personality down under: Perspectives from Australia. New York, NY: Nova Science Publishers.
Encyclopedia or dictionary (online)

Direct quote (page number/s must be included)

"DNA profiling was initially dominated by human forensic applications" (Hamilton and Sadowsky, 2010, p. 1).

Paraphrasing (use of page number/s encouraged)

Hamilton and Sadowsky (2010, p.5) find that many fish with AFLP markers were present.

 

Hamilton, M. J. and Sadowsky, M. J. (2010). DNA Profiling in Ecology. In R.Jansson (Ed.), Encyclopedia of Life Sciences. doi10.1002/9780470015902.a0005454.pub2
Encyclopedia or dictionary (print) Direct quote (page number/s must be included)

"Humans did not invent the principles and laws of physics" (Krebs, 2008, p. xxvii).

Paraphrasing (use of page number/s encouraged)

Krebs (2008) notes that the Universe is complex by nature (p. xxxiii).
 
Krebs, R. E. (Ed.). (2008). Encyclopedia of scientific principles, laws, and theories. (Vol. 1). London, England: Greenwood Press.

Multiple authors

There are a number of different ways to cite multiple authors. For a list of examples on how to write first citations AND subsequent citations for works with multiple authors see the Style Notes - Authors section of this guide.

For further information on how to cite work by multiple authors see section  6.12 and table 6.12 in the Publication Manual of the American Psychological Association, 6th edition.

 

Direct quote (page number/s must be included)

It was found that "individuals can discriminate between members of their own and a closely related sympatric species on the basis of song and beak morphology" (Grant & Grant, 2008, p. 78).

Paraphrasing (use of page number/s encouraged)

Grant and Grant (2008) studied the behaviour of finches on Daphne Major and found that in many cases misimprinted birds mated and hybridised (pp. 95-96).

 

Grant, P. R., & Grant, B. R. (2008). How and why species multiply: The radiation of Darwin’s finches. Princeton, NJ: Princeton University Press.

Multiple works by the same author

In-text citations: if you list separate citations for each work, follow the appropriate citation style. However if you include two or more works by the same author within the same parentheses, you should arrange the citations by year of publication. Give the authors' surname once and for each subsequent work give only the date e.g. (Smith, 2002, 2004).


For detailed examples on how to write first citations and subsequent citations see the Style Notes - Authors section of this guide.


The Reference List: arrange two or more works by the same author (or the same group of authors listed in the same order) by year of publication (earliest first). Place in-press citations last.

 

Direct quote (page number/s must be included)

Eysenck has argued that... (2009, p. 23)

Paraphrasing (use of page number/s encouraged)

A detailed study (Eysenck, 2006, p. 48) has indicated that...

Eysenck, M. W. (2006). Fundamentals of cognition.  Hove, England: Psychology Press.

Eysenck, M. W. (2009). Fundamentals of psychology. London, England: Psychology Press.

Multiple works published in the same year by the same author

For works by the same author (or the same group of authors listed in the same order) arrange the references in the reference list alphabetically by author and then alphabetically by title.


Suffixes a, b, c etc are then added to the publication year.


Refer to these sources in your essay as they appear in your reference list,  e.g. Elkind (2007b)... then later in the text... (Elkind, 2007a)... and so on.

 

Elkind (2007a) states that "stress impairs children's ability to learn and teachers' ability to teach" (p. 16).

Elkind, D. (2007a). The hurried child: Growing up too fast too soon. Cambridge, MA: Da Capo Lifelong.


Elkind, D. (2007b). The power of play: How spontaneous, imaginative activities lead to happier, healthier children. Cambridge, MA: Da Capo Lifelong.

No author

In text cite the first few words of the title and the year.


Italicize the title.

Direct quote (page number/s must be included)

The Life of Insects (1979) finds "ant behaviour patterns assist with changes" (p. 23).

Paraphrasing (use of page number/s encouraged)

Temperature has a major effect on insect control (The Life of Insects, 1979, p. 42).
The Life of insects. (1979). Morristown, NJ: Silver Burdett Co.

Single author

For further examples on how to reference first citations and subsequent citations see the Style Notes - Authors  section of this guide.


For further information can also be found in section 6.1 of the Publication Manual of the American Psychological Association, 6th edition.
 

Direct quote (page number/s must be included)

Benesch (2001) stated that English for academic purposes (EAP) was "more rhetorical in focus" (p. 6).

Paraphrasing (use of page number/s encouraged)

Benesch (2001) describes the function of the rhetorical-grammatical process chart (pp. 6-7).

 

Benesch, S. (2001). Critical English for academic purposes: Theory, politics, and practice. Mahwah, NJ: Lawrence Erlbaum Associates.

Thesis

Italicise the title of the dissertation/thesis.


Identify the work as a doctoral dissertation or master's thesis in parentheses after the title.


For further information on how to reference the various types of theses go to section 7.05 in the Publication Manual of the American Psychological Association, 6th edition.

Thesis from an institutional repository or a website:

Hanna, E. G. (2005). Environmental health and primary health care: Towards a new workforce model (Doctoral thesis, La Trobe University, Bundoora, Australia). Retrieved from http://www.lib.latrobe.edu.au/thesis/public/adt-LTU20061110.152550/index.html

Italicise the title of the dissertation/thesis.

Identify the work as a doctoral dissertation or master's thesis in parentheses after the title. If the thesis is from a university outside the United States, include the University's name and location in the same parentheses).

Include the full URL for the thesis/dissertation.

For further information on how to reference the various types of theses go to section 7.05 in the Publication Manual of the American Psychological Association, 6th edition.

For a thesis available from a database service i.e. ProQuest Dissertations and Theses:

Murray, K. E. (2009). Sudanese in Australia: Renewal and hope (Doctoral dissertation). Available from ProQuest Dissertations and Theses database. (AAT No. 3364159)

Italicise the title of the dissertation/thesis.


Identify the work as a doctoral dissertation or master's thesis in parentheses after the title.


Include the name of the database and the accession or order number (i.e. UMI or AAT number) of the document.


For further information on how to reference the various types of theses go to section 7.05 in the Publication Manual of the American Psychological Association.

 

 

For an unpublished thesis or dissertation:

Venn, S. E. (2007). Plant recruitment across alpine summits in south-eastern Australia (Unpublished doctoral thesis). La Trobe University, Melbourne, Australia.

Translated work

 

In-text citation: when a date of publication is inapplicable, such as for an ancient text, cite the year of the translation you used, preceded by trans. e.g. (Aristotle, trans. 1931). Or include the year of the version you used followed by version. e.g. (Plato, 1998 version).

When you know the original date of publication include it in the citation. e.g. Laplace (1814/1951).

For further information go to section 6.18 in the Publication Manual of the American Psychological Association.

 

 

LaPlace (1814/1951) LaPlace, P. (1951). A philosophical essay on probabilities (F. W. Truscott & F. L. Emory, Trans.). New York: Dover. (Original work published 1814).