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University of Wollongong Australia

Referencing & Citing Guide: Other Sources

This Referencing and Citing Guide provides referencing examples to act as guidelines for the UOW Harvard, AGLC, APA 6 and Footnoting (Oxford) referencing styles.

APA 6 - Other Sources

Format In-Text Reference
Reference List

Computer software

In text give the proper name of the software and the version number.


Reference entries are not required for standard software or programming languages (e.g. Microsoft Word or Excel, Java, Adobe Photoshop, or SPSS).

Direct quote

With StatCrunch 5.0 you can track "how often your items are viewed" (Integrated Analytics, 2010, para. 2).

Paraphrasing

The software allows you to share your results online (Integrated Analytics, 2010, para. 2).


Integrated Analytics. (2010). StatCrunch (Version 5.0) [Computer software]. Upper Saddle River, NJ: Pearson Education.

Conference proceedings / papers


Conference proceedings are often published in book or periodical form.


Cite papers from a book using the same format as for a book or book chapter. If the editor's name is given, insert the name after the word "In".
If online include a DOI or URL.


Cite proceedings that are published regularly using the same format as for a journal (periodical).  If online include a DOI or URL, as you would for an online journal article.


For papers that have not been formally published, include both the year and the month of the symposium/conference, for example:  (2009, May).


If only an abstract of the article appears in the proceedings, insert {abstract} immediately after the title.


Capitalise the name of symposium, which is a proper noun.


For further information please go to section 7.04 Meetings and Symposia in the Publication Manual of the American Psychological Association, 6th edition.

 

Published in book form

Icart, T. (2009). How to hash into elliptic curves. In S. Halevi (Ed.), Lecture Notes in Computer Science: Vol. 5677, Advances in Cryptology - CRYPTO 2009: 29th Annual International Cryptology Conference (pp. 303-316). New York, NY: Springer. doi: 10.1007/978-3-642-03356-8

Published in journal form

Murray, D. B., Beckmann, M. & Kitano, H. (2006). Regulation of yeast oscillatory dynamics. Proceedings of the National Academy of Sciences of the United States of America, 104(7), 2241-2246. doi:10.1073/pnas.0606677104


Course material

Course notes are treated in a similar style to books.


If the author is unknown, move the title to the author position, then include the year of publication.


For print copies include:


Lecturer's name, Initial. (Year). Subject code, Lecture title and/or Week of presentation [type of material i.e. lecture notes/PowerPoint slides/lecture]. Place:  University.


For online copies include:


Lecturer's name, Initial. (Year). Subject code: Lecture title and/or Week of presentation [ type of material i.e. lecture notes/PowerPoint slides/lecture], Retrieved from  Place: University: URL

 

Lecture Notes

Print

Emmerling, M. (2011). BIO1OF, Lecture 5, Topic 2, Cell Structures Pt. 1 Membranes Diffusion and Osmosis  [PowerPoint slides]. BIO1OF, Bundoora, Australia:  La Trobe University, Department of Botany.

Online

Emmerling, M. (2011). BIO1OF, Lecture 5, Topic 2, Cell Structures Pt. 1 Membranes Diffusion and Osmosis  [PowerPoint Slides]. Retrieved from Department of Botany, La Trobe University, LMS web site:  https://lms.latrobe.edu.au

Course Book

School of Health Sciences, La Trobe University (2010), Social work practice in communities, semester 2 (SWP31COM). Melbourne: La Trobe University.

Drug information

Use the first part of the URL as indicated in the examples. These take you to the main search page to put in the drug name.


The date is the last update for the drug.


Do not use the long search string URL.

In text use the drug name and date

(Progout, 2008)

Name of the drug. (year of the entry). In name of the resource. Retrieved from URL

Progout. (2008). In MimsOnline. Retrieved from http://www.mimsonline.com.au

Allopurinal. (2012). In Australian Medicines Handbook. Retrieved from http://0-amh.hcn.net.au.alpha2.latrobe.edu.au

Figures

Immediately below each figure you should include a caption that provides concise explanation of the figure. This can be used as its title. If you use a figure or table that has been copied or adapted from another source you must include a full reference to the original source in the caption.


For further information on how to cite figures, see 5.23 Figure, Legends and Captions in  the Publication Manual of the American Psychological Association, 6th edition.


Tables: see 5.16 Table notes in the the Publication Manual of the American Psychological Association, 6th edition.


N.B. For PhD candidates (and students submitting a three or four-paper master's thesis), you may need permission to reproduce or adapt tables or figures. Further information can be found in section 6.10 Permission to Quote, Reprint or Adapt in the the Publication Manual of the American Psychological Association, 6th edition.

Driver control layout - taken from 'Control strategy for a mobile self-balancing materials handling platform'

Fig 1. Driver control layout. Taken from "Control strategy for a mobile self-balancing materials handling platform," by L. J. Butler and G. B. Bright. 2010, Journal of Engineering, Design and Technology, 8(1), p. 15.

Butler, L .J. & Bright, G. B. (2010). Control strategy for a mobile self-balancing materials handling platform. Journal of Engineering, Design and Technology, 8(1), 6-27.

Film, video and DVDs

 

 

Zanuck, R. D. (Producer), & Spielberg, S. (Director). (1975). Jaws [Motion picture]. United States: Universal Pictures.

Images

In the text if no photographer/illustrator is provided cite the first few words of the title and the year.


Italicize the title.


In the reference list if the date of creation is not listed provide the date which you retrieved the image e.g.
Retrieved 12 November, 2010, from http://www.bbc.co.uk/

Direct quote (page number/s must be included if available)

 With dance moves including "Thunderbolt" and "Linny" the Dance Central for Kinect videogame image looks to appeal to a large audience (PR, 2010).

Paraphrasing

The Dance Central graphics are very strong for the Kinect (PR, 2010).

PR. (2010, November 11).  Kinect: the top launch games [Image]. The Guardian. Retrieved from http://www.guardian.co.uk/technology/gallery/2010/nov/09/kinect-xbox?picture=368520671

Personal communication

Personal communications can include letters, emails, telephone conversations, interviews etc. Because the information is not recoverable personal communications should not be included in the Reference List. Cite them in text only.


Provide the initials of the communicator and as exact a date as possible.


Some personal communications are recoverable and may be in the personal possession of an author, stored in an archive or institutional collection. For information on how to reference archival material see section 7.10 of the Publication Manual of the American Psychological Association, 6th edition.

 

J. Saul (personal communication, February 23, 2010) OR (S. Harrison, personal communication, September 6, 2004)

Podcasts/vodcasts

(Van Nuys, 2007) Van Nuys, D. (Producer). (2007, December 19). Shrink rap radio [Audio Podcast]. Retrieved from http://www.shrinkrapradio.com/

Radio programs

For an episode from a radio or television series, use the same format as for a chapter in a book, but list the script writer and director (if available) in the author position and the producer in the editor position.

Direct quote (page number/s must be included)

Paraphrasing (use of page number/s encouraged)

Horstman, M. (Writer), & Adams, J. (Director). (2010). Scientists in schools. [Television series episode]. In N. Lee (Executive Producer), Catalyst. Ultimo, NSW: Australian Broadcasting Corporation.

Secondary sources

Use secondary sources only when you cannot retrieve a copy of the original source.


List the secondary source in the Reference List; in the text of your essay include the original work that you have used and provide a citation for the secondary source.

As the cultural critic Norman Klein stated in 1997, the Romantics "gloried in the ruins of memory" (as cited in Cameron, 2008, p. 83). Cameron, A. (2008). Modular narratives in contemporary cinema. Basingstoke, England: Palgrave Macmillan.

Television programs

For an episode from a radio or television series, use the same format as for a chapter in a book, but list the script writer and director (if available) in the author position and the producer in the editor position.

Direct quote

Science education faces "a looming crisis" (Horstman & Adams, 2010).

Paraphrasing

Horstman and Adams (2010) note that a move from the blackboard is required.

Horstman, M. (Writer), & Adams, J. (Director). (2010). Scientists in schools. [Television series episode]. In N. Lee (Executive Producer), Catalyst. Ultimo, Australia: Australian Broadcasting Corporation.