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University of Wollongong Australia

Referencing: Style Notes

APA 6 - Style Notes

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Format Notes



Same name for multiple authors

Same surname

When citing the same surname for more than one author give their initials in text; e.g.,
"Among studies, we review M. A. Light (2008) and I. Light (2006)."

Same surname and initials

If the initials are also the same give the authors full name in brackets e.g.


In the reference list In text
Janet, P. [Paul]. (2007). (Paul Janet, 2007)
Janet, P. [Percy]. (1979). (Percy Janet, 1979)

First citation and subsequent citations

Use the table to determine the correct format depending on the number of authors.

Type of citation First citation in text Subsequent citations in text Bracket format, first citation in text Bracket format, subsequent citations in text
One author Walker (2007) Walker (2007) (Walker, 2007) (Walker, 2007)
Two authors Walker and Allen (2004) Walker and Allen (2004) (Walker & Allen, 2004) (Walker & Allen, 2004)
Three to five authors Bradley, Ramirez, & Soo (1999) Bradley et al. (1999) (Bradley, Ramirez, & Soo, 1999) (Bradley et al., 1999)
Six or more authors Wasserstein et al. (2005) Wasserstein et al. (2005) (Wasserstein et al., 2005) (Wasserstein et al., 2005)
Groups University of Pittsburgh (2005) University of Pittsburgh (2005) (University of Pittsburgh, 2005) (University of Pittsburgh, 2005)
Groups (readily identified by abbreviation) Department of Education, Science and Training (DEST, 2008) DEST (2008) (Department of Education, Science and Training [DEST], 2008) (DEST, 2008)

Adapted from APA publication manual 6th edition p. 177

Authors in the reference list

Alphabetise by the author's surname:
use the rule "nothing precedes something"; therefore, Brown, Z. comes before Browning, H.

Multiple works:
when listing multiple works by one author, list the earliest date first.

No Author

Check the Formats section for citing works with no author.

Corporate authors

When the author and the publisher are identical, use the word Author in the place of the publisher (e.g. Canberra, Australia: Author).






12-point type size (never use a larger point size for headings or on the title page)

Use Times or Times New Roman


2.54 cm at the top, bottom, left-hand, and right-hand sides of the page


Double-line spacing
(do not insert any extra line spaces between paragraphs, or between reference entries)

Use one space after all punctuation.
exceptions – the periods in abbreviations (et al., p.m.) or colons in ratios (10:1)

Space twice after punctuation at end of sentence.

Rules for the use of indents:

Paragraph indents

Indent the first line of each paragraph (tab key)
Exceptions: abstract, block quotations, titles and headings, table titles and notes

Reference entries

These apply the hanging indent for the second and subsequent lines

Bailey, S. (2011). Academic writing: A handbook for international students (3rd ed.). Oxford, England: Routledge.

Justification of text

Only the left hand margin of the text needs to be justified.

The lines on the right hand margin should end unevenly.


Publishing Information



Place of publication

US publishers

For publishers located in the US give the city and the state abbreviation e.g. Upper Saddle River, N.J.

International publishers

For publishers outside of the US give the city and country e.g. London, England.


Abbreviation Book or publication part
ed. edition
Rev. ed. Revised edition
2nd ed. second edition
Ed. (eds.) Editor (Editors)
Trans. Translator(s)
n.d. no date
p. (pp.) page (pages)
Vol. Volume (as in Vol. 4)
Vols. Volumes (as in Vols. 1-4)
No. Number
Pt. Part
Tech. Rep. Technical Report
Suppl. Supplement
para. paragraph

Adapted from APA publication manual 6th edition p. 180