When citing the same surname for more than one author give their initials in text; e.g.,
"Among studies, we review M. A. Light (2008) and I. Light (2006)."
If the initials are also the same give the authors full name in brackets e.g.
|In the reference list||In text|
|Janet, P. [Paul]. (2007).||(Paul Janet, 2007)|
|Janet, P. [Percy]. (1979).||(Percy Janet, 1979)|
Use the table to determine the correct format depending on the number of authors.
|Type of citation||First citation in text||Subsequent citations in text||Bracket format, first citation in text||Bracket format, subsequent citations in text|
|One author||Walker (2007)||
|Two authors||Walker and Allen (2004)||Walker and Allen (2004)||(Walker & Allen, 2004)||(Walker & Allen, 2004)|
|Three to five authors||
Bradley, Ramirez, & Soo (1999)
|Bradley et al. (1999)||(Bradley, Ramirez, & Soo, 1999)||(Bradley et al., 1999)|
|Six or more authors||Wasserstein et al. (2005)||Wasserstein et al. (2005)||(Wasserstein et al., 2005)||(Wasserstein et al., 2005)|
|Groups||University of Pittsburgh (2005)||University of Pittsburgh (2005)||(University of Pittsburgh, 2005)||(University of Pittsburgh, 2005)|
|Groups (readily identified by abbreviation)||Department of Education, Science and Training (DEST, 2008)||DEST (2008)||(Department of Education, Science and Training [DEST], 2008)||(DEST, 2008)|
Adapted from APA publication manual 6th edition p. 177
use the rule "nothing precedes something"; therefore, Brown, Z. comes before Browning, H.
when listing multiple works by one author, list the earliest date first.
When the author and the publisher are identical, use the word Author in the place of the publisher (e.g. Canberra, Australia: Author).
Use Times or Times New Roman
2.54 cm at the top, bottom, left-hand, and right-hand sides of the page
(do not insert any extra line spaces between paragraphs, or between reference entries)
Use one space after all punctuation.
exceptions – the periods in abbreviations (et al., p.m.) or colons in ratios (10:1)
Space twice after punctuation at end of sentence.
Indent the first line of each paragraph (tab key)
Exceptions: abstract, block quotations, titles and headings, table titles and notes
These apply the hanging indent for the second and subsequent lines
Bailey, S. (2011). Academic writing: A handbook for international students (3rd ed.). Oxford, England: Routledge.
Only the left hand margin of the text needs to be justified.
The lines on the right hand margin should end unevenly.
For publishers located in the US give the city and the state abbreviation e.g. Upper Saddle River, N.J.
For publishers outside of the US give the city and country e.g. London, England.
|Abbreviation||Book or publication part|
|Rev. ed.||Revised edition|
|2nd ed.||Second edition|
|Ed. (eds.)||Editor (Editors)|
|p. (pp.)||Page (pages)|
|Vol.||Volume (as in Vol. 4)|
|Vols.||Volumes (as in Vols. 1-4)|
|Tech. Rep.||Technical Report|
Adapted from APA publication manual 6th edition p. 180