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University of Wollongong Australia

Referencing & Citing Guide: Style Notes

Footnoting - Style Notes

Format Notes

Bibliography

The Bibliography appears at the end of the assignment and is a complete list of everything you have used when researching the assignment. It should include the references you have cited as well as other sources you may have read but not quoted from.

Arrangement - the items in the bibliography are arranged alphabetically by the authors' surname. If you have cited more than one work by the same author, you should arrange them by the authors' surname and then by date, i.e. start with the earliest and end with the latest.

If you are quoting several works published by the same author in the same year, you should list these works alphabetically by author and then differentiate between them by adding a lower case letter after the year for each item i.e. 2003a, 2003b

Authors' names - use only the initials of the authors' given names. No full stops, and no spaces, are used between initials. In the bibliography the first authors name should be written with the family name first, followed by the initials i.e.  Altman JC & BH Hunter.

Do not number the references in your Bibliography.

In the Bibliography you do not need to include page numbers for books.

All the elements of the reference are separated from each other by commas. A full stop concludes the citation i.e.

Blackledge, A & A Creese, Multilingualism: a critical perspective, Continuum, London, New York, 2010.

Article titles should be enclosed between single quotation marks. i.e.

Nguyen, PJ, 'A study of the Woiwurrung language',  Australian Journal of Indigenous Life, vol. 22, no. 3, 2009, p. 99.

Use minimal capitalization for the titles of books, book chapters and journal articles.

Some of the more often used examples are listed here

AbbreviationBook or publication part
chap. chapter
ed. (full stop include) editor
eds (because the abbreviation includes the last letter of the word thereis no need to include a full stop) editors
edn (because the abbreviation includes the last letter of the word thereis no need to include a full stop) edition
n.d. for no date
et al. and others
no. number
rev. revised
trans. translator or translated by
vol. volume
ibid From the Latin 'ibidem' meaning 'in the same place'
p. a single page e.g. p.32
pp. plural pages e.g. p. 32-45. If information is scattered throughout the book or article, use passim (Latin term for 'scattered')

First, second and subsequent references

 

The first time a source is mentioned in the footnotes it is necessary to include the full reference.

Second and subsequent references to that work can then be abbreviated. See footnote number 7 by G Cowlishaw, listed below.

If you refer to more than one work by the same author, use short, abbreviated titles after the first, full footnote reference. Omit the place of publication, publisher, and date of publication in second references, but include the title of the publication so that you can distinguish between the author's works. See R Broome examples below.

If you cite the same work again in the footnote immediately following you can use the abbreviation 'ibid.'.(From the Latin 'ibidem' meaning 'in the same place'). See footnotes number 6 and 7 below.

  1. R Broome, Aboriginal Australians: a history since 1788, 4th edn, Allen & Unwin, Crows Nest, NSW, 2010, p. 34.
  2. G Cowlishaw, The city's outback, UNSW Press, Sydney, 2009, p.48.
  3. R Broome, Aboriginal Australians: a history since 1788, p. 35.
  4. J Danalis, Riding the black cockatoo, Allen & Unwin, Crows Nest, NSW, 2009, p. 53.
  5. R Broome, Aboriginal Victorians: a history since 1800, Allen & Unwin, Crows Nest, NSW, 2005, p. 120.
  6. ibid, p. 122.
  7. G Cowlishaw, p. 39. 

Footnotes

Text

All footnotes should be numbered.

All footnote references should be listed in the order they appear in the text.

Authors' names - use only the initials of the authors' given names. No full stops or spaces are used between initials. In footnotes the authors name should be written with the initials appearing first, while in the bibliography the surname comes first e.g.

Footnote: 3. DR Snow, Archaeology of native North America, Prentice Hall, Boston, 2010, p. 67.

Bibliography: Snow, DR, Archaeology of native North America, Prentice Hall, Boston, 2010.

You should give exact page numbers if your reference is a direct quotation, a paraphrase, an idea, or is otherwise directly drawn from the source.

All the elements of the reference are separated from each other by commas. A full stop concludes the citation i.e.

A Blackledge & A Creese, Multilingualism: a critical perspective, Continuum, London, New York, 2010, p. 29.

Article titles should be enclosed between single quotation marks. i.e.

PJ Nguyen, 'A study of the Woiwurrung language',  Australian Journal of Indigenous Life, vol. 22, no. 3, 2009, p. 99.

Use minimal capitalization for the titles of books, book chapters and journal articles.

Use italics for the titles of books, journals, and newspapers.

Footnotes are usually set in a smaller font than the font used in the body of your assignment. The actual footnote number appearing at the bottom of the page is not superscripted.

Electronic sources

Web sites: If your source is web-based, but not from one of the Library subscription databases, always provide the full URL.

Library subscription database: If your source is from one of the Library's online databases you do not need to provide the URL, viewed date etc. 

 

Note identifiers

Text

If you quote, paraphrase or summarise information from another source, you must include a note identifier and accompanying footnote in the body of your assignment.

The note identifiers should appear after any quotes, paraphrased sections, copied tables, graphs etc.

The note identifier must be written in superscript i.e. 4. Superscript is where the numbers are slightly raised above the level of the text. The note identifier should appear before any punctuation marks e.g. commas, colons, etc. except for when it appears at the end of the sentence, in which case it should follow the full stop.

If you use a long quotation (more than three lines of text), the note identifier should be placed at the end of the quotation.

Quotations and paraphrasing

Text

Footnoting - changes to this Referencing Tool The Footnoting (Oxford) style recommend that you enclose direct quotes within single quotation marks. However, if you submit your essay through Turnitin, it is necessary to enclose all direct quotes within double quotation marks. In this Referencing Tool we have tried to be consistent and have decided to present all Harvard and Footnoting direct quote examples within double quotation marks.

Short Quotations

Remember to always record a quotation exactly as given by its author.

Use double quotation marks for short quotations inserted in the text. Add a superscript in-text number either immediately after the quote or at the end of the sentence. A footnote should be included at the end of the page to indicate the source of the quote.

Example

Text
Hirst claimed that "the worst sectarian violence in our history occurred in Melbourne in 1846 when Catholic and Protestant mobs fired on each other on the anniversary of the Battle of the Boyne".4

4. Hirst, J, Sense and nonsense in Australian history, Black Inc. Melbourne, 2006.

Long Quotations

For quotations of three lines or longer, indent each line by five spaces and use single spacing between the lines.  Do not use quotation marks. At the end of the quotation cite the source in a footnote.

Example

Text
Historians of the post-war period have noted the rapid expansion of government-funded education, particularly of university education, and the social changes that sprang from this:

Ironically, Menzies's commitment to education had produced a large population of university students, often schooled in the critique of the new social sciences and whose affluence and idealism made them ready and eager to overthrow the old order associated with Menzies and Calwell. Across the country the old concern to preserve the status quo, to conserve uniformity, to safeguard the Australian way of life and the family home from subversion was giving way to demands for change.1

1. P Grimshaw, M Lake, A McGrath and M Quartly, Creating a Nation, McPhee Gribble, Ringwood, 1994, p. 300.

Omissions from Quotations

To indicate an omission from a quotation, use an ellipsis (three full stops with spaces before the first and after the third).  This can be used in the middle of the quotation or at either end.

Example

In the 1980's there was a growing demand for RF (Islamic) banking in the West.

The effort to provide RF financial services was pioneered by Al Barak Bank in London in 1988, when it tried to come up with a home financing contract that would fit the requirements of the banking law in the West... This resulted in the birth of a new "Islamic" financing model based on the lease-to purchase model (Al Ijara Wal Tamaluk or Ijarah Wal Iqtina – these Arabic terms both mean lease to own).12

12. Y Abdul-Rahman, The art of Islamic banking and finance: tools and techniques for community-based banking. John Wiley & Sons, Hoboken, 2010, p. 206.

Paraphrasing

Example

Original Text:

The Revolution of 1688-89 was... of great importance for the history of liberty, in England and elsewhere. Later generations saw it as the cornerstone of their liberties – an MP referred to the Bill of Rights as "our original contract" as early as 1690 (Grey 1769, pp. 75-76) -- and used it to validate their claims for greater liberty.

Paraphrased as:

The idea that the Bill of Rights guaranteed liberty can be traced back to debate in the House of Commons in 1690.12

12. J Miller, `Crown, Parliament and People' in JR Jones (ed.), Liberty Secured? Britain before and after 1688, Stanford University Press, Stanford, 1992, p. 86.