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University of Wollongong Australia

Referencing: Books

In-text reference

Direct quote

Nadel points to Stoppard’s constant scepticism about autobiography and biography (Carroll 2002, p. 8).

Paraphrasing

Carroll (2002, p. 8) shows that...

Reference list

Carroll, S 2002, ‘The stuff of theatre’, review of Double act: a life of Tom Stoppard by Ira Nadel, Age, 28 September, Saturday Extra, p. 8.

In-text reference

Direct quote

Gray (2009, p. 75) concludes the following "..."

Paraphrasing

Another demonstration of this is... (Gray 2009, p. 75)

Reference list

Gray, E 2009, ‘The hair of Milton: historicism and literary history’, in DW Davies (ed.), Romanticism, history, historicism: essays on an orthodoxy, Routledge, New York, pp. 32-42.

Notes
  • Refer to the author of the chapter in-text. 
  • In the Reference list set out the editor’s name with initials first then family name. 
  • Put the title of the chapter in 'single quotes'. 
  • Do not italicise. 
  • Put (ed.), for a single editor or (eds), for multiple editors followed by a comma. 
  • The pages of the chapter are added after the publication details.
In-text reference

...a better world (Deni Green Consulting Services 2008, p. 5).

Reference list

Deni Green Consulting Services 2008, Capital idea: realising value from environmental and social performance, Deni Green Consulting Services, North Carlton, Victoria.

In-text reference

Direct quote

"students taught by teachers with greater verbal ability learn more than those taught by teachers with lower verbal ability" (Stronge 2007, p. 4)

Paraphrasing

Stronge (2007, p. 4) notes the correlation between...

Reference list

Stronge, JH 2007, Qualities of effective teachers, Association for Supervision and Curriculum Development, Alexandria, VA.

Notes
  • In-text referencing and reference list entry is the same for ebooks as print.
In-text reference

Direct quote

"Human security..." (eds McGrew & Poku 2007, p. 8). "Hinduism is not defined..." (ed. Flood 2003, p. 5)

Paraphrasing

According to McGrew and Poku (eds 2007, p. 8)... Flood (ed. 2003, p. 5) comments that Hinduism is...

Reference list

McGrew, A & Poku, NK (eds) 2007, Globalization, development and human security, Polity, Cambridge, UK.

Flood, G (ed.) 2003, The Blackwell companion to Hinduism, Blackwell, Oxford.

Notes
  • Use the abbreviation ed. for a single editor and eds (no full stop) for more than one editor.
  • Use the abbreviation edn (no full stop) for edition.
  • Write ed., eds and edn in lower case not capitals.
PRINT

Encyclopedia entry with author

In-text reference

Direct quote

Use italics when including the title of the dictionary/encyclopedia in-text.

Paraphrasing

Smith (1993) observes that anarchy places states in a permanent position of rivalry with each other.

Reference list

Smith, MJ 1993, ‘Anarchy’, in The Oxford Companion to the Politics of the World, J Krieger (ed.), Oxford University Press, New York.

 

Encyclopedia entry with no author

In-text reference

The Macquarie dictionary (2005) defines a larrikin as...

or

...(The New Encyclopedia Britannica 1997)

Notes
  • Use the word ‘in’ before the title of the publication.
  • If no author is evident and a well known source is being cited you can put all the necessary information in-text. You do not need to put this reference in the reference list.
  • Use italics when including the title of the dictionary/encyclopedia in-text.
WEB
In-text reference

Direct quote

The heel of Achilles is "[t]he vulnerable or weak point in a man’s character or of a nation." (Dictionary of phrase and fable 2000)

Paraphrasing

The Dictionary of phrase and fable (2000) defines Achilles’ heel as...

Reference list

‘Achilles tendon’ 2000, in Dictionary of phrase and fable, EC Brewer (ed.), Bartelby.com, viewed 30 November 2010, <http://www.bartleby.com/81/139.html>.

Notes
  • If you have used a dictionary or encyclopedia from a website include the viewed date and URL

 

DATABASE
In-text reference

Direct quote

"Descent systems determine..." (Velioti-Georgopoulos 2006).

Paraphrasing

Velioti-Georgopoulos (2006) emphasises that kinship and descent should be treated as different concepts.

Reference list

Velioti-Georgopoulos, M 2006 ‘Kinship and Descent’, in Encyclopedia of Anthropology, HJ Birx (ed.), vol. 3, Sage Reference, Thousand Oaks, CA.

Notes
  • If the online encyclopedia is from a library reference database e.g. Gale Virtual Reference or Oxford Reference Online, cite it the same as the print. Do not include the date viewed, the database name or the URL.
2 - 3 AUTHORS
In-text reference

Direct quote

"The experience of ..." (Savage, Bagnall & Longhurst 2005, p. 28)

or

Savage, Bagnall and Longhurst (2005, p. 28) argue that "..."

Paraphrasing

The migrant experience is one that... (Savage, Bagnall & Longhurst 2005, p.28)

Reference list

Savage, M, Bagnall, G & Longhurst, B 2005, Globalization and belonging, SAGE, London.

Notes
  • Cite the names of the authors in the order they appear on the title page of the book.

  • Unlike the reference list which requires author/s initials, in-text references use author/s surnames only and do not include initials.

  • When referring to multiple authors in a sentence use ‘and’ instead of ‘&’.

  • When citing the names of multiple authors in brackets use ‘&’ before the last author.

3 OR MORE AUTHORS
In-text reference

Direct quote

Kring et al. (2010, p. 72) outline the theory as "..." or "The theory..." (Kring et al. 2010, p. 72)

Paraphrasing

Abnormal is not always...(Kring et al. 2010, pp. 47-48)

Reference list

Kring, A, Davison, GC, Neale, JM & Johnson, S 2010, Abnormal psychology, 11th edn, John Wiley & Sons, Hoboken, NJ.

Notes
  • For in-text citations, list the name of the first author followed by et al. (meaning ‘and others’).

  • Do not use et al. in the reference list. List all the authors.

SAME AUTHOR DIFFERENT YEARS
In-text reference

Direct quote

Dyer (2009; 2013) reported that leadership and communication...

or

Leadership and communication are.... (Dyer 2009, p. 223; 2013, p. 149)

 

Reference list

Dyer, J 2009, The business communication handbook, 8th edn, Pearson, Frenchs Forest, NSW.

---2013, Communication for business and the professions: strategies and skills, 5th edn, Pearson, Frenchs Forest, NSW.

Notes
  • Arrange the in-text citation in chronological order starting with the earliest date first.

  • Use a semicolon to separate the page reference from the date following it.

  • In the reference list begin with the earliest date first.

  • The name of the author can be repeated but it is preferable to use the em dash --- with no space before the date.

SAME AUTHOR SAME YEAR
In-text reference

Direct quote

"In the last 10 years Australia has experienced..." (Manne 2005a, p. 1)

or

Manne (2005b, p. 14) argued that the corporate media power...

 

Reference list

Manne, R (ed.) 2005a, Do not disturb: is the media failing Australia?, Black Inc., Melbourne.

--- 2005b, Left right left: political essays 1977-2005, Black Inc., Melbourne.

Notes
  • Distinguish between the titles in-text by adding a lower case letter of the alphabet starting with ‘a’.

  • In the reference list place the lower case letter after the date with no space.

In-text reference

Direct quote

"Ant behaviour patterns ..." (The life of insects 1979, p. 23)

Paraphrasing

In The life of insects (1979, p. 23) it is claimed that...

Reference list

The life of insects 1979, Silver Burdett Co., Morristown, NJ.

Notes
  • Cite the work by its title and date.
  • List the item alphabetically in the reference list by the title then date.

  • Do not use Anon or Anonymous.

  • Italicise the title in the In-text citation as well as in the Reference List

In-text reference

This is emphasised by Seah (n.d.) when...

This is emphasised by Seah (c. 2005) when...

Reference list

Seah, R n.d., Micro-computer applications, Microsoft Press, Redmond, Washington.

Seah, R c.2005, Micro-computer applications, Microsoft Press, Redmond, Washington.

Notes
  • If there is no date use n.d.

  • If there is an approximate date use c. (this means ‘circa’ – Latin for ‘around/about’).

In-text reference

Direct quote

"Student centred learning..." (Killen 2009, p. 10)

Paraphrasing

Effective teaching is based on several... (Killen 2009, p. 10)

Reference list

Killen, R 2009, Effective teaching strategies: lessons from research and practice, 5th edn, Cengage Learning, South Melbourne.

Notes
  • Any edition other than the first edition must be included in the reference list citation.

  • The edition statement is added after the title, followed by a comma.

  • A reprint is not a new edition. It does not need a specific mention.

  • Use the abbreviation edn (no full stop) for edition

In-text reference

For the in-text citation you might write:
As the cultural critic Norman Klein stated in 1997, "the Romantics gloried in the ruins of memory" (cited in Cameron 2008, p. 5)

Reference list

In the Reference List you only need to record the book that you actually sourced:
Cameron, A 2008, Modular Narratives in Contemporary Cinema, Palgrave Macmillan, Basingstoke, New York.

Notes
  • This is where the work of one author is cited in another author’s work.

PARAPHRASING

Metcalf (2005, p. 184) propounded the idea that...

Reference list

Metcalf, P 2005, Anthropology: the basics, Routledge, Abingdon.

WHEN FEWER THAN 30 WORDS ARE QUOTED
In-text reference

Metcalf (2005, p. 184) argues that "the Nuer of southern Sudan lacked any institutions of governance; no chiefs or councils of elders, no armies or law enforcement"

Reference list

Metcalf, P 2005, Anthropology: the basics, Routledge, Abingdon.

Notes
  • Include the quote within the paragraph and include specific page number/s.

  • Use quotation marks to show the exact words.

WHEN 30 OR MORE ARE QUOTED
In-text reference

Much has been written about acute care. Finkelman (2006, p. 184), for example, points out that:

There are many changes in acute care services occurring almost daily, and due to the increasing use of outpatient surgery, surgical services have experienced major changes. Hospitals are increasing the size of their outpatient or ambulatory surgery departments and adjusting to the need of moving patients into and out of the surgical service in 1 day or even a few hours.

Recently, this trend has been seen in some Australian hospitals and research here…

Reference list

Finkelman, AW 2006, Leadership and management in nursing, Pearson Hall, Upper Saddle River, NJ.

Notes
  • Begin quoting the material on a new line.

  • Indent it 5 spaces (use the Indent tool to keep all lines of the quote evenly indented).

  • Include specific page number/s.

  • Also, always include the page number(s) when drawing primarily on a particular page or section rather than referring to the source as a whole.

  • In-text use p. for a single page (Metcalf 2005, p. 45) and pp. for a page range e.g. (Metcalf 2005, pp. 34-36).

  • Omit quotation marks.

  • Use double spacing for your text and single spacing for the intended quote. Make sure the quote is exactly as it was published.

In-text reference

Direct quote

Cite the author, not the translator of the book in the in-text citation

"Morality..." (Nietzsche 1956, p. 27)

Paraphrasing

Nietzsche (1956, p. 27) argues that...

Reference list

Give acknowledgement to the translator after the title:
Nietzsche, FW 1956, The birth of tragedy: and, The genealogy of morals, trans. F Golffing, Doubleday, Garden City, New York.

Notes
  • When the role of a translator, compiler, or reviser, is acknowledged, the initials precede the surname. This format also applies to compilers, editors and revisers. Use the abbreviations rev., trans., ed./eds or comp./comps appropriate.
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