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University of Wollongong Australia

Referencing: Other Sources

Author-Date (Harvard) - Other Sources

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Format In-Text Reference Reference List

Conference Papers



If the conference paper is available online add the viewed date and URL after the place of publication. The title of the conference is put in italics.


Direct quote

‘To engage productively with assessment tasks...’ (Kift & Moody 2009).


Kift and Moody (2009) observe that first year students require an induction to academic conventions to engage with assessment.


Kift, S M, & Moody, KE 2009, ‘Harnessing assessment and feedback in the first year to support learning success, engagement and retention’, in ATN Assessment Conference 2009 Proceedings, RMIT University, Melbourne, 19 – 20 November, viewed 8 November 2010, <>.


If the paper is not published the title of the conference is not in Italics.

Use the phrase paper presented at after the title of the paper and before the title of the conference.

Put the dates of the conference (range of days and month) after the place.


Direct quote

"Students are more likely to persist and graduate in settings that hold..." (Tinto 2009).


Tinto (2009) identifies his four main conditions for student retention as...

Tinto, V 2009, ‘Taking the student retention seriously: rethinking the first year at university’, paper presented at the FYE Curriculum Design Symposium, Queensland University of Technology, 5-6 February, viewed 12 December 2010, <>

Course Material

State the type of course material after the title of the lecture.

You can use the subject code or the subject name.

Course material is unpublished so the title is enclosed in single quotes not italics.


Direct quote

"Socialisation into roles is a major impetus behind inequality" (Wallace 2010).


It was pointed out in the week 2 lecture that kinship... (Lee 2010)


Wallace, P 2010, ‘Gender & sexuality’ PowerPoint slides, SOC1SAC, La Trobe University, viewed 19 January 2011.

Lee, H 2010, ‘Charting Kinship’, lecture, ANT2KAM, La Trobe University, delivered 5 August.

Figure / Graph / Table

Any reproduced table, figure or graph must reference the original author and copyright holder.

In the reference list, reference the source where the graph or table is located.

The graph Divorces granted: Australia 1988 – 2007 (ABS 2008) illustrates...


Australian Bureau of Statistics 2008, Divorces Australia 2007, cat. no. 3307.0.55.001, ABS, Canberra.

Film, Video & Television


Film & Video

The in-text references to films DVDs, videos, television, and radio programs should contain the title (in italics) and date of production.

The key elements of a film or audiovisual reference are:

Title (in italics)

Year of publication or release

Format (use motion picture for films; use video recording, CD-ROM, DVD, audio cassette, slide, or microform etc. for other audiovisual material)

Distributor (for films) or publisher

Place of recording or publication (for audiovisual material)

Although you are likely to view most feature films (i.e. movies) as DVDs, you should still reference feature films with the format ‘motion picture’ rather than ‘DVD’.

Any special credits and other information that may be useful can be noted after the citation e.g. Revolutionary road 2009, DVD, Paramount Home Entertainment Australia, Abbotsford Vic., starring Leonardo Di Caprio and Kate Winslet. portrayed in About Jenny Holzer (2011)

The scene, towards the end of the film, depicts... (Alien Underworld 2002)

Woody Allen in Annie Hall (1977) demonstrates the art of...

About Jenny Holzer 2011, DVD, Microcinema International, San Francisco, California.

Alien Underworld 2002, video recording, Tattooed Media and the Australian Film Finance Corporation, Australia, written & directed by Sonya Pemberton.

Annie Hall 1977, motion picture, MGM Home Entertainment, Santa Monica CA, directed by Woody Allen.


Place the Title in italics, and date of recording in the in-text citation.

If the program is part of a series put the episode title first followed by the series title both in italics.

Add the broadcast date after the publication details.

A recent Four Corners episode highlighted the difficulties of caring for disabled family members (Breaking Point 2010).

When interviewed on 7.30 Report (2015) the Treasurer said …

It could be argued that the financial situation at the time necessitated.... (What are we going to do with the money? 1997)

Breaking Point, Four Corners 2010, television program, Australian Broadcasting Corporation, Australia, February 15.

7.30 Report 2015, television program, Australian Broadcasting Corporation, Australia, 18 November.

What are we going to do with the money? 1997, television program, Special Broadcasting Service, Australia, 8 August

Images & Artwork




When reproducing/including an image in your work, place the in-text reference immediately under the image.

For the format description: use ‘Image’ for photographs or graphics.

Where the image is a photograph of an artwork, and the photographer has been specifically credited, note this after the title

Where the photographer or artist is not known, start your reference with the Title of Image.

Where none of the usual details are known, i.e. artist/photographer, date, title of image, start with [Subject of the image].

In the image above (Jorgensen 2010) you can see...

Kamuro (2008) illustrates ...

(Sculpture by the sea – Elephant 2009)

(Van Gogh 1890)

Jorgensen, L 2010, Lighthouse Freezes, image, ABC News, viewed 17 December 2010, <>.

Kamuro (2008) Calmness, image, Flickr viewed 30 June 2010, <>.

Sculpture by the sea – Elephant 2009, image, photographed by A. Wain, Flickr, viewed 4 February 2014, < wain/4091011517/>.


If you are citing an image from a printed source, reference the printed source as normal and use a page number in your in-text citation to indicate which page the image comes from.


(Gaunt 1970, p. 17)

Gaunt, W. 1970, The impressionists, Thames & Hudson, London.

Leaflet / Pamphlet

Use the authorising body/publisher as the author OR use the title of the pamphlet/leaflet if there is no author.

Use the title of the pamphlet in-text if there is no author.

Use n.d. for no date.

Use c. if you can approximately date the document e.g. c. 1985.

Use the word “pamphlet” after the title.


Direct quote

"..." (New State for North Queensland Movement n.d.)


In the leaflet distributed by the New State for North Queensland Movement (n.d.) it is evident that...

New State for North Queensland Movement n.d., A New state for North Queensland : why ? how ? when?, pamphlet, New State for North Queensland Movement, Townsville.






(Google Earth 2008)

Google Earth 6.0 2008, Hylands House and estates 51°42’39.17"N, 0°26’11.30"W, elevation 60M, 3D Buildings data layer, viewed 31 August 2011 <>





Atlas (with editor)

.....the position of the new city is to be north of Melbourne (ed. Eales 2003, Map 36).


Eales, S (ed.) 2003, The Jacaranda atlas, 3rd edn, John Wiley & Sons, Brisbane.

Atlas (without editor)

...the position of the new city is to be north of Melbourne (The Jacaranda Atlas 2003, Map 36).


The Jacaranda atlas 2003, 3rd edn, John Wiley & Sons, Brisbane.

Printed map


Motorways are indicated (Ordnance Survey 2006)…

Ordnance Survey 2006, Chester and North Wales, Landranger series, Sheet 106, 1:50000, Ordnance Survey, Southampton.


Media Release

The description, ‘media release’, is inserted after the title of the media release.

Direct quote

In a statement released to the media, "Labor’s laws were driving small businesses to the wall," Mr Baillieu said (2010).


Clearway changes were outlined in a release to the media (Baillieu 2010).

To reference an Online media release:

Bailieu, T (Premier, Minister for the Arts) 2010, Coalition delivers for small business with clearways changes, media release, 9 December, Premier of Victoria, viewed 15 December 2010, <>.

To reference a Paper media release: Watersmith, C. 2000, BHP enters new era, media release, 1 March, BHP limited, Melbourne.


Personal communication

Personal communications includes letters, emails, interviews etc. Email addresses should never be cited without the permission of the owner of the address. Put all the details of the email letter etc. in-text.

This was confirmed by email (Brown 2012, pers. comm., 3 July).


Shickle S (2008 pers. comm., 8 July) verified that...

Note: Personal communications can take a number of forms and are not normally available for consultation except under special circumstances. For this reason they are not usually included in the reference list. If a full citation is required, reference in the following way:

Brown, A 2012, email, 3 July.

Shickle, S 2008, email, 24 November.


Plays and Poetry

References to plays and poetry are often more precise if given in terms of acts, scenes, lines, verses, and so on.

The character Nora eats macaroons (Ibsen 1995, act 1, scene 1).


Ibsen, H 1995, A doll's house, trans. K McLeish, Cambridge University Press, Cambridge. 


If using statistics from a database, the title of the database is in italics.

(Australian Bureau of Statistics 2009)
For subsequent use, you can abbreviate (ABS 2009)

Net sales in Australia for the year ending 2009 were $4,404,000.00 (Coca-Cola Amatil Ltd: Company Factfile 2010)


Australian Bureau of Statistics 2009, Education and work, Australia, May 2009, cat. no. 6227.0, ABS, Canberra, viewed 24 November 2009, <>.

Coca-Cola Amatil Ltd: Company Factfile 2010, Euromonitor Global Market Information Database, viewed 20 March 2010, <>.



Technically a thesis is not a published work, so the title is not placed in italics

Under Award you might also put Masters thesis or Honours thesis

Only put the location if it is not obvious from the name of the institution eg La Trobe University, Bundoora. University of Wollongong would be enough on its own


Direct quote

A model predictive control strategy was developed to optimise the selection of the optimal sequence of operating modes (Fiorentini 2016, p. 218)


Fiorentini (2016, p. 218) developed a model predictive control strategy…

Fiorentini, M 2016, ‘Hybrid model predictive control of residential heating, ventilation and air conditioning systems with on-site energy generation and storage ‘, PhD thesis, Faculty of Engineering and Information Sciences, University of Wollongong.