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University of Wollongong Australia

Referencing: Online sources

Author-Date (Harvard) - Online sources

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Format In-Text Reference Reference List


If no proper name is given, the author’s username may be used instead.

If the author puts multiple posts up on the same day, include the time the entry was posted.- e.g. 12 November 13:53.

If you are referencing a comment from a weblog, use the name of the commenter instead of the author of the weblog post and use ‘weblog comment’ instead of ‘web log post’ for format. Include the exact title (Including ‘Re:’ if used).

If you are using the whole blog and not an individual post, do not include the Blog Post Title and change the format to weblog.


Direct quote

"The whole idea of a conspiracy is that it takes two or more people conspiring" (Henderson 2010). Henderson questions, "[t]he whole idea of a conspiracy..." (2010).


Henderson’s weblog post (2010) covers how the meaning of the word conspiracy has changed to mean self-dealing.
Henderson, D 2010, Has the word ‘conspiracy’ lost its meaning?, Library of Economics and Liberty, weblog post, 13 December, viewed 21 December 2010, <>

Document from a Website

If there is no author begin the reference with the title of the document.

Include page numbers in-text if it is a long document.

Use n.d. if there is no date.



Direct quote

"Following the intensification of the GFC...weaken markedly" (Australian Chamber of Commerce and Industry 2010, p. 5).


The Australian Chamber of Commerce and Industry (2010) found that more Australian youth are unable to find work in 2010 than in 2008.


Australian Chamber of Commerce and Industry 2010, Issues Paper Youth Employment, Australian Chamber of Commerce and Industry, viewed 15 December 2010, <>.

Podcast / Vodcast

If the podcast has no recognisable author, start with the title and put the year after the title and then use the title in the in-text referencing.

Direct quote

...."while the octopus was carrying the coconut, it was actually of no benefit to it", Julian Finn and Mark Norman explain on the La Trobe University Podcast (2010).


This podcast show is about who owns the fish and the ocean (Finn & Norman 2010).


Finn, J & Norman, M 2010, Have coconut, will travel, vodcast, 23 April, La Trobe University, viewed 10 January 2011, <>.


Social Media (Twitter, Facebook etc.)

Before using a reference from Twitter or Facebook make sure it is appropriate for academic work.

If no proper name is given, use the username.

As tweets and status updates do not have titles, use the first few words of the message as a title.


Direct quote

The BP Parody account created on Twitter, notes "[c]atastrophe is a strong word, let’s all agree to call it a whoopsie daisy" (BP Public Relations 2010).


The Office of The Prime Minister (2010) updated their Julia Gillard Facebook page on 13 Jan, with...

The Gateway Review Process 2010, Department of Finance and Deregulation, viewed 10 December 2010, <>.

Online video


Direct quote

"Googling is great and everybody does it but not for university assignments" (LTULibrary 2010).


This video shows why you shouldn’t just use Google when researching for university assignments (LTULibrary 2010).

The CSIRO YouTube video (2009) reveals ...


LTULibrary 2010, Why can’t I just google?, online video, 9 February, La Trobe University, viewed 20 January 2011, <>.

CSIRO (Commonwealth Scientific and Industrial Research Organisation) 2009, Making a difference, online video, 25 May, CSIRO, Viewed December 9, 2010, <>.