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University of Wollongong Australia

Referencing

Books | APA7

Single author

For details explaining in-text citations, refer to section titled 'In-text citation information'

 

In-text citation

Direct quote (page number/s must be included)

Benesch (2001) stated that English for academic purposes (EAP) was "more rhetorical in focus" (p. 6).

 

Paraphrasing (use of page number/s encouraged)

Benesch (2001) describes the function of the rhetorical-grammatical process chart.

 

Reference list

For details explaining the construction of a reference list, refer to section titled 'Reference list information'

 

Template:

Author, A. A. (year). Title of the book. Publisher Name. http://doi.org/xxxx OR http://xxxx.

Benesch, S. (2001). Critical English for academic purposes: Theory, politics, and practice. Lawrence Erlbaum Associates. https://doi.org/10.4324/9781410601803

Notes:

  • DOIs can be identified using crossref.org
  • Not all books have a DOI

Multiple authors

In-text citation

For details explaining in-text citations, refer to section titled 'In-text citation information'

 

Direct quote (page number/s must be included)

For one or two authors:

It was found that "individuals can discriminate between members of their own and a closely related sympatric species on the basis of song and beak morphology" (Grant & Grant, 2008, p. 78).

For three or more authors:

“A major problem for philosophers with the idea of empirical knowledge is how we can be sure that any knowledge gained through the senses is true or accurate” (Rolfe et al., 2010, p.23).

 

Paraphrasing (use of page number/s encouraged)

For one or two authors:

Grant and Grant (2008) studied the behaviour of finches on Daphne Major and found that in many cases misimprinted birds mated and hybridised (pp. 95-96).

For three or more authors:

There are different ways of categorising different types of knowledge (Rolfe et al., 2011, p. 18).

 

Reference list

For details explaining the construction of a reference list, refer to section titled 'Reference list' information

 

Template

Author, A. A., Author, B. B., & Author, C. C. (year). Title of the book. Publisher Name. http://doi.org/xxx OR http://xxxx.

 
Multiple Authors without DOI:

Grant, P. R., & Grant, B. R. (2008). How and why species multiply: The radiation of Darwin’s finches. Princeton University Press.

Rolfe, G., Jasper, M., & Freshwater, D. (2010). Critical reflection in practice: Generating knowledge for care (2nd ed.).Palgrave Macmillan.

 
Multiple Authors with DOI:

Mahoney, L. M., & Tang T. (2017). Strategic social media: From marketing to social change (1st ed.). John Wiley Sons. http://doi.org/10.1002/9781119370680

Reeves, S., Alexanian, J., Kendall-Gallagher, D., Dorman, T., & Kitto, S. (2018). Collaborative practice in critical care settings: A workbook (1st ed.). Routledge. https://doi.org/10.4324/9781315207308

 

Notes:

  • For single authors or for two authors cite all names in in-text citations
  • For three or more authors, cite the first author’s name followed by et al. for all in-text citations
  • DOIs can be identified using crossref.org
  • Not all books have a DOI

Different edition

In-text citation

For details explaining in-text citations, refer to section titled 'In-text citation information'

 

Direct quote (page number/s must be included)

“In setting up clinical supervision, it is essential that the boundaries of the supervisory relationship are established” (Rolfe et al., 2011, p. 121).

 
Paraphrasing (use of page number/s encouraged)

Rolfe et al. (2011) describe a number of supervisory frameworks that are goal-oriented (p. 120).

 

Reference list

For details explaining the construction of a reference list, refer to section titled 'Reference list information'

 

Templates:

 Author, A. A., & Author, B. B. (year). Title of book (2nd ed.). Publisher Name. http://doi.org/xxxx OR http://xxxx.

Author, A. A., & Author, B. B. (year). Title of chapter. In E. E. Editor (Ed.), Title of book (2nd ed., pp. x–xx). Publisher Name. http://doi.org/xxxx OR  http://xxxx.

Different edition without a DOI:

Rolfe, G., Jasper, M., & Freshwater, D. (2011). Critical reflection in practice: Generating knowledge for care (2nd ed.). Palgrave Macmillan.

Different edition with a DOI

Smith, M. (2014). Principles of pharmaceutical marketing (3rd ed.). Routledge. https://doi.org/10.4324/9781315859774

Notes

  • DOIs can be identified using crossref.org
  • Not all books have a DOI

Chapter in an edited book

In-text citation

For details explaining in-text citations, refer to section titled 'In-text citation information'

 

Direct quote (page number/s must be included)

“Most current methods do not adequately capture the dynamic and interactive nature of engagement” (Fredricks & McCloskey, 2012, p. 779).

 

Paraphrasing (use of page number/s encouraged)

Fredricks and McCloskey (2012, p. 764) point out that studies into emotional engagement in schools consider emotional engagement to be positive and negative reactions or identification with the school, for example, belonging, feeling valued and appreciated.

 

Reference list

For details explaining the construction of a reference list, refer to section titled 'Reference list information'

 

Template:

Author, A. A., & Author, B. B. (year). Title of chapter. In E. E. Editor (Ed.), Title of book (pp. x–xx). Publisher Name. http://doi.org/xxxx  OR http://xxxx.

 

Chapter in an edited book with DOI:

Fredricks, J., & McCloskey, W. (2012). The measurement of student engagement: A comparative analysis of various methods and student self-report instruments. In S. L. Christenson, A. L. Reschly, & C. Wylie (Eds.), Handbook of research on student engagement (pp. 763 –782). Springer. http://doi.org/10.1007/978-1-4614-2018-7

 

Chapter in an edited book without DOI:

Colley, H. (2010). Time in learning transitions through the lifecourse: a feminist perspective. In K. Ecclestone, G. Biesta, & M. Hughes (Eds.), Transitions and  learning through the lifecourse (pp. 130 –146). Routledge.

 

Notes

  • The author of the chapter is cited in the in-text citation.
  • In the Reference List you should invert the chapter authors' names but do not invert the book editors' names.
  • The name of the editor should be preceded by the word 'in'.
  • Enclose the abbreviation (Ed.) for Editor and (Eds.) for Editors after the last editor's name.
  • For a book with no editor, include the word 'in' before the book title
  • DOIs can be identified using crossref.org
  • Not all books have a DOI

​Ebook

In-text citation

For details explaining in-text citations, refer to section titled 'In-text citation information'

 

Direct quote (page number/s must be included)

"The initial focus of any marketing project is the product that will attract customers, be sold, generate profits and garner new business” (Oppenheim & Mulcahy, 2004, p. 42).

 

Paraphrasing (use of page number/s encouraged)

Markets are the situations within which products are sold and they are influenced by different types of factors. (Oppenheim & Mulcahy, 2004, p. 42).

 

Reference list

For details explaining the construction of a reference list, refer to section titled 'Reference list information'

 

Templates:

Author, A. A., & Author, B. B. (year). Title of book [Audiobook]. Publisher Name. http://doi.org/xxxx  OR http://xxxx.

 
With DOI:

Doyle, C. (2016). A dictionary of marketing (4th ed.). Oxford University Press. http://doi.org/10.1093/acref/9780198736424.001.0001

 
Without DOI:

Oppenheim, M. R., & Mulcahy, W. D. (2004). Marketing information: A strategic guide for business and finance libraries Routledge. https://ebookcentral-proquest-com.ezproxy.uow.edu.au/lib/uow/reader.action?docID=244222&ppg=5Notes

 

Notes:

  • DOIs can be identified using crossref.org
  • Not all books have a DOI

Multiple works published in different years by the same author

In-text citation

For details explaining in-text citations, refer to section titled 'In-text citation information'

 

Direct quote (page number/s must be included)

Eysenck (2009, p. 23) has argued that... 

 

Paraphrasing (use of page number/s encouraged)

A detailed study (Eysenck, 2006) has indicated that...

 

Reference list

For details explaining the construction of a reference list, refer to section titled 'Reference list information'

Template:

Author, A. A., Author, B. B., & Author, C. C. (year). Title of the book. Publisher Name. http://doi.org/xxxx OR http://xxxx.

Eysenck, M. W. (2006). Fundamentals of cognition.  Psychology Press.

Eysenck, M. (2009). Fundamentals of Psychology. Psychology Press, https://doi.org/10.4324/9781315736945

Notes

  • In-text citations: if you list separate citations for each work, follow the appropriate citation style. However if you include two or more works by the same author within the same parentheses, you should arrange the citations by year of publication. Give the authors' surname once and give only the date e.g. (Smith, 2002, 2004).
  • The Reference List: arrange two or more works by the same author (or the same group of authors listed in the same order) by year of publication (earliest first). Place no date [n.d.] first and place any in-press citations last.
  • DOIs can be identified using crossref.org
  • Not all books have a DOI

Multiple works published in the same year by the same author

Elkind (2007a) states that "stress impairs children's ability to learn and teachers' ability to teach" (p. 16).

Reference list

For details explaining the construction of a reference list, refer to section titled 'Reference list information'

For details explaining in-text citations, refer to section titled 'In-text citation information'

 

Template:

Author, A. A., Author, B. B., & Author, C. C. (yeara). Title of the book. Publisher Name. http://doi.org/xxxx OR http://xxxx.

Author, A. A., Author, B. B., & Author, C. C. (yearb). Title of the book. Publisher Name. http://doi.org/xxxx OR http://xxxx.

 

Elkind, D. (2007a). The hurried child: Growing up too fast too soon. Da Capo Lifelong.

Elkind, D. (2007b). The power of play: How spontaneous, imaginative activities lead to happier, healthier children. Da Capo Lifelong.

 

Notes

  • For works by the same author (or the same group of authors listed in the same order) arrange the references in the reference list alphabetically and then alphabetically by title.
  • Suffixes a, b, c etc are then added to the publication year.
  • Refer to these sources in your essay as they appear in your reference list,  e.g. Elkind (2007b)... then later in the text... (Elkind, 2007a)... and so on.
  • Refer to section 8.12 of the APA 7th edition style manual for further details
  • DOIs can be identified using crossref.org
  • Not all books have a DOI

Authored book with editor credited on the front cover

In-text citation

For details explaining in-text citations, refer to section titled 'In-text citation information'

 

Direct quote (page number/s must be included)

In-text citations for direct should use the author of the book, not the editor.

 

Paraphrasing (use of page number/s encouraged)

In-text citations for paraphrases should use the author of the book, not the editor.

 

Reference List

For details explaining the construction of a reference list, refer to section titled 'Reference list information'

 

Template

Author, A. A., & Author, B. B. (year). Title of book (E. Editor, Ed.). Publisher Name. http://doi.org/xxxx  OR http://xxxx.

 

Funston, R., McDonald, L., Sheppard, I., Barbour, N., Laroux, S., & Gilbert, A. (1998). A garden programme for everyone including blind, visually impaired and disabled people (P. Rickards, Ed.). Association for the Blind.

 

Notes:

  • DOIs can be identified using crossref.org
  • Not all books have a DOI

Encyclopedia or dictionary

Reference list

For details explaining the construction of a reference list, refer to section titled 'Reference list information'

For details explaining in-text citations, refer to section titled 'In-text citation information'

 

Templates:

Author A.A., & Author, B. B. (year). Title of the work. Retrieved Month day, year, from http://xxxx.

Author, A. A., & Author, B. B. (year). Title of chapter. In E. E. Editor (Ed.), Title of book. Publisher Name. http://doi.org/xxxx OR http://xxxx.

Merriam-Webster, (n.d.). Merriam-Webster.com dictionary. Retrieved December 6, 2019, from https://www.merriam-webster.com/

Beyer, C. (2018). Edmund Husserl, In E. N. Zalta (Ed.). The Stanford encyclopedia of philosophy (Summer 2018 ed.). Stanford University. https://plato.stanford.edu/archives/sum2018/entries/husserl/.

Notes:

  • When an archived or fixed version of the work is available (as in the Beyer example above) a retrieval date is not needed.
  • When the work is continuously updated (as in the Merriam-Webster example above) a retrieval date is required.
  • DOIs can be identified using crossref.org
  • Not all books have a DOI

No author

Unidentified author

In-text citation

For details explaining in-text citations, refer to section titled 'In-text citation information'

 

Direct quote (page number/s must be included)

The Life of Insects (1979) finds "ant behaviour patterns assist with changes" (p. 23).

 

Paraphrasing (use of page number/s encouraged)

Temperature has a major effect on insect control (The Life of Insects, 1979, p. 42).

 

Anonymous author

In-text citation

For details explaining in-text citations, refer to section titled 'In-text citation information'

 

Direct quote (page number/s must be included)

Anonymous (2017) reports “When it shall please God to send you on the coast of Virginia, you shall do your best endeavour to find out a safe port in the entrance of some navigable river” (para. 2).

 

Paraphrasing (use of page number/s encouraged)

Instructions were provided to early American settlers (Anonymous, 2017, para. 2).  

 

Temperature has a major effect on insect control (The Life of Insects, 1979, p. 42).

 

Anonymous Author

In-text reference

Instructions were provided to early American settlers (Anonymous, 2017, para. 2).  

 

Reference list

For details explaining the construction of a reference list, refer to section titled 'Reference list information'

 

Templates

Title of the book. (year). Publisher Name. http://doi.org/xxxx OR http://xxxx.

Anonymous. (year). Title of the work. Publisher Names. http://doi.org/xxxx OR http://xxxx.

The Life of insects. (1979). Silver Burdett Co.

Anonymous. (2017). Instructions for the Virginia colony. Great Neck Publishing.

Notes

  • For unidentified authors use the title in place of the author.  If the title is italicised in the reference list, italicise it in the in-text citation.
  • Use capitals in the in-text citation of the title, but use sentence case in the reference list entry.
  • If the title is not italicised in the reference list, use quotation marks around it in the in-text citation eg. (“The life of Insects,” 1979, p. 23).
  • If the title is long, shorten it for the in-text citation.
  • If the author is identified as ‘Anonymous’ use the term ‘Anonymous’ in place of the author’s name.
  • DOIs can be identified using crossref.org
  • Not all books have a DOI

 

Thesis

Reference list

For details explaining the construction of a reference list, refer to section titled 'Reference list information'

For details explaining in-text citations, refer to section titled 'In-text citation information'

 

Unpublished thesis or dissertation:

Template:

Author, A. A. (year). Title of dissertation [Unpublished doctoral dissertation]. Name of Institution awarding the degree.

Venn, S. E. (2007). Plant recruitment across alpine summits in south-eastern Australia [Unpublished doctoral thesis]. La Trobe University.

 

For a published thesis or dissertation:

Template:

For details explaining the construction of a reference list, refer to section titled 'Reference list information'

For details explaining in-text citations, refer to section titled 'In-text citation information'

 

Author, A. A. (year). Title of dissertation [Doctoral dissertation, Name of Institution awarding the degree]. Database Name or Archive Name. http://xxx

 

Dearlove, J. (2018). Transition to university: An interplay driven by student agency [Doctoral dissertation, University of Wollongong]. Research Online. https://search-ebscohost-com.ezproxy.uow.edu.au/login.aspx?direct=true&db=ir00653a&AN=wuro.theses1.1504&site=eds-live

 

Notes:

  • Italicise the title of the dissertation/thesis.
  • Identify the work as a doctoral dissertation or master's thesis in parentheses after the title.
  • For further information on how to reference the various types of theses go to section 10.6 in the Publication Manual of the American Psychological Association, 7th edition.
  • DOIs can be identified using crossref.org
  • Not all books have a DOI

Translated work

Reference list

For details explaining the construction of a reference list, refer to section titled Reference list

For details explaining in-text citations, refer to section titled 'In-text citation information

 

Template:

Author, A. A., & Author, B. B. (xxxx). Title of the book (T. Translator, Trans; 1st ed.). Name of Publisher. (Original work published xxxx). http://doi.org/xxxx OR http://xxxx.

LaPlace, P. (1951). A philosophical essay on probabilities (F. W. Truscott & F. L. Emory, Trans.). Dover. (Original work published 1814).

 

Notes

  • DOIs can be identified using crossref.org
  • Not all books have a DOI
  • In-text citation: When you know the original date of publication include it in the citation. e.g. Laplace (1814/1951).
  • For further information go to section 8.15 in the Publication Manual of the American Psychological Association.

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