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University of Wollongong Australia

Referencing

In-text citation information | APA 7

NOTE: For full details about in-text citations refer to chapter 8 of the APA 7th edition.

 

In-text citations can take one of two forms:

Parenthetical citation: (Author, year, p. x)

For single or two authors, always cite all authors

(Zepke, 2017, p. 55)

(Fredricks & McCloskey, 2012, p. 779)

For three or more authors, use the first name followed by et al. for all citations

(Carpenter et al., 2015, p. 290)

 

Narrative citations: Author (year, p. x)

For single or two authors, always cite all authors

Zepke (2017, p. 55)

Fredricks and McCloskey (2012, p. 764)

For three or more authors, use the first name followed by et al. for all citations

Carpenter et al. (2015, p. 290)

 

Secondary sources:

(Original author, year, as cited in Current Author, year, p. x) OR

Original author (year, as cited in Current Author, year, p. x)

(Bushe, 2013, as cited in Zepke, 2017, p. 39) OR

Bushe (2013, as cited in Zepke, 2017, p. 39)

 

Multiple sources:

List in alphabetical order

(Adam et al., 2018; Carpenter et al., 2015; Zepke, 2017)

If you want to give emphasis to some authors over other authors, separate the sources so that the emphasised source/s appear first and the remainder follow the words ‘see also’.

(Giddens, 1991; see also Archer, 2003, 2007)

 

Multiple works by the same author published in different years:

(Archer, 2003, 2007, 2012)

 

Multiple works by the same author published in the same year:

For multiple works by the same author published in the same year, use letters in the in-text citations and in the reference list entries to indicate the different sources eg

Hammond, 2020a

Hammond, 2020b

Hammond, 2020c

 

Unknown or anonymous authors:

see the example provided under the tab ‘No author’ in the Books section of this guide

 

Cases or court decisions:

(Name v. Name, year)  OR Name v. Name (year)

Note: The title or names are italicised in the in-text citation, but not in the reference list

 

Audiovisual media:

Media Type

Include as Author

Film Director
TV Series Executive producer(s)
TV Series episode Writer and director of episode
Podcast Host or executive producer
Podcast episode Host of episode
Webinar Instructor
Classical music album or song Composer
Modern music album or song Recording artist
Artwork Artist
Online streaming video Person or group who uploaded the video
Photograph Photographer

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