When citing the same surname for more than one author give their initials in text; e.g.,
"Among studies, we review M. A. Light (2008) and I. Light (2006)."
If the initials are also the same give the authors full name in brackets e.g.
|In the reference list||In text|
|Janet, P. [Paul]. (2007).||(Paul Janet, 2007)|
|Janet, P. [Percy]. (1979).||(Percy Janet, 1979)|
Use the table to determine the correct format depending on the number of authors.
|Type of citation||First citation in text||Subsequent citations in text||Bracket format, first citation in text||Bracket format, subsequent citations in text|
|One author||Walker (2007)||
|Two authors||Walker and Allen (2004)||Walker and Allen (2004)||(Walker & Allen, 2004)||(Walker & Allen, 2004)|
|Three to five authors||
Bradley, Ramirez, & Soo (1999)
|Bradley et al. (1999)||(Bradley, Ramirez, & Soo, 1999)||(Bradley et al., 1999)|
|Six or more authors||Wasserstein et al. (2005)||Wasserstein et al. (2005)||(Wasserstein et al., 2005)||(Wasserstein et al., 2005)|
|Groups||University of Pittsburgh (2005)||University of Pittsburgh (2005)||(University of Pittsburgh, 2005)||(University of Pittsburgh, 2005)|
|Groups (readily identified by abbreviation)||Department of Education, Science and Training (DEST, 2008)||DEST (2008)||(Department of Education, Science and Training [DEST], 2008)||(DEST, 2008)|
Adapted from APA publication manual 6th edition p. 177
use the rule "nothing precedes something"; therefore, Brown, Z. comes before Browning, H.
|Abbreviation||Book or publication part|
|Rev. ed.||Revised edition|
|2nd ed.||Second edition|
|Ed. (eds.)||Editor (Editors)|
|p. (pp.)||Page (pages)|
|Vol.||Volume (as in Vol. 4)|
|Vols.||Volumes (as in Vols. 1-4)|
|Tech. Rep.||Technical Report|
Adapted from APA publication manual 6th edition p. 180