Nadel points to Stoppard’s constant scepticism about autobiography and biography (Carroll 2002, p. 8).
Carroll (2002, p. 8) shows that...
Carroll, S 2002, ‘The stuff of theatre’, review of Double act: a life of Tom Stoppard by Ira Nadel, Age, 28 September, Saturday Extra, p. 8.
Gray (2009, p. 75) concludes the following "..."
Another demonstration of this is... (Gray 2009, p. 75)
Gray, E 2009, ‘The hair of Milton: historicism and literary history’, in DW Davies (ed.), Romanticism, history, historicism: essays on an orthodoxy, Routledge, New York, pp. 32-42.
...a better world (Deni Green Consulting Services 2008, p. 5).
Deni Green Consulting Services 2008, Capital idea: realising value from environmental and social performance, Deni Green Consulting Services, North Carlton, Victoria.
"students taught by teachers with greater verbal ability learn more than those taught by teachers with lower verbal ability" (Stronge 2007, p. 4)
Stronge (2007, p. 4) notes the correlation between...
Stronge, JH 2007, Qualities of effective teachers, Association for Supervision and Curriculum Development, Alexandria, VA.
"Human security..." (eds McGrew & Poku 2007, p. 8). "Hinduism is not defined..." (ed. Flood 2003, p. 5)
According to McGrew and Poku (eds 2007, p. 8)... Flood (ed. 2003, p. 5) comments that Hinduism is...
McGrew, A & Poku, NK (eds) 2007, Globalization, development and human security, Polity, Cambridge, UK.
Flood, G (ed.) 2003, The Blackwell companion to Hinduism, Blackwell, Oxford.
Use italics when including the title of the dictionary/encyclopedia in-text.
Smith (1993) observes that anarchy places states in a permanent position of rivalry with each other.
Smith, MJ 1993, ‘Anarchy’, in The Oxford Companion to the Politics of the World, J Krieger (ed.), Oxford University Press, New York.
The Macquarie dictionary (2005) defines a larrikin as...
...(The New Encyclopedia Britannica 1997)
The heel of Achilles is "[t]he vulnerable or weak point in a man’s character or of a nation." (Dictionary of phrase and fable 2000)
The Dictionary of phrase and fable (2000) defines Achilles’ heel as...
‘Achilles tendon’ 2000, in Dictionary of phrase and fable, EC Brewer (ed.), Bartelby.com, viewed 30 November 2010, <http://www.bartleby.com/81/139.html>.
"Descent systems determine..." (Velioti-Georgopoulos 2006).
Velioti-Georgopoulos (2006) emphasises that kinship and descent should be treated as different concepts.
Velioti-Georgopoulos, M 2006 ‘Kinship and Descent’, in Encyclopedia of Anthropology, HJ Birx (ed.), vol. 3, Sage Reference, Thousand Oaks, CA.
"The experience of ..." (Savage, Bagnall & Longhurst 2005, p. 28)
Savage, Bagnall and Longhurst (2005, p. 28) argue that "..."
The migrant experience is one that... (Savage, Bagnall & Longhurst 2005, p.28)
Savage, M, Bagnall, G & Longhurst, B 2005, Globalization and belonging, SAGE, London.
Cite the names of the authors in the order they appear on the title page of the book.
Unlike the reference list which requires author/s initials, in-text references use author/s surnames only and do not include initials.
When referring to multiple authors in a sentence use ‘and’ instead of ‘&’.
When citing the names of multiple authors in brackets use ‘&’ before the last author.
Kring et al. (2010, p. 72) outline the theory as "..." or "The theory..." (Kring et al. 2010, p. 72)
Abnormal is not always...(Kring et al. 2010, pp. 47-48)
Kring, A, Davison, GC, Neale, JM & Johnson, S 2010, Abnormal psychology, 11th edn, John Wiley & Sons, Hoboken, NJ.
For in-text citations, list the name of the first author followed by et al. (meaning ‘and others’).
Do not use et al. in the reference list. List all the authors.
Dyer (2009; 2013) reported that leadership and communication...
Leadership and communication are.... (Dyer 2009, p. 223; 2013, p. 149)
Dyer, J 2009, The business communication handbook, 8th edn, Pearson, Frenchs Forest, NSW.
---2013, Communication for business and the professions: strategies and skills, 5th edn, Pearson, Frenchs Forest, NSW.
Arrange the in-text citation in chronological order starting with the earliest date first.
Use a semicolon to separate the page reference from the date following it.
In the reference list begin with the earliest date first.
The name of the author can be repeated but it is preferable to use the em dash --- with no space before the date.
"In the last 10 years Australia has experienced..." (Manne 2005a, p. 1)
Manne (2005b, p. 14) argued that the corporate media power...
Manne, R (ed.) 2005a, Do not disturb: is the media failing Australia?, Black Inc., Melbourne.
--- 2005b, Left right left: political essays 1977-2005, Black Inc., Melbourne.
Distinguish between the titles in-text by adding a lower case letter of the alphabet starting with ‘a’.
In the reference list place the lower case letter after the date with no space.
"Ant behaviour patterns ..." (The life of insects 1979, p. 23)
In The life of insects (1979, p. 23) it is claimed that...
The life of insects 1979, Silver Burdett Co., Morristown, NJ.
List the item alphabetically in the reference list by the title then date.
Do not use Anon or Anonymous.
Italicise the title in the In-text citation as well as in the Reference List
This is emphasised by Seah (n.d.) when...
This is emphasised by Seah (c. 2005) when...
Seah, R n.d., Micro-computer applications, Microsoft Press, Redmond, Washington.
Seah, R c.2005, Micro-computer applications, Microsoft Press, Redmond, Washington.
If there is no date use n.d.
If there is an approximate date use c. (this means ‘circa’ – Latin for ‘around/about’).
"Student centred learning..." (Killen 2009, p. 10)
Effective teaching is based on several... (Killen 2009, p. 10)
Killen, R 2009, Effective teaching strategies: lessons from research and practice, 5th edn, Cengage Learning, South Melbourne.
Any edition other than the first edition must be included in the reference list citation.
The edition statement is added after the title, followed by a comma.
A reprint is not a new edition. It does not need a specific mention.
Use the abbreviation edn (no full stop) for edition
For the in-text citation you might write:
As the cultural critic Norman Klein stated in 1997, "the Romantics gloried in the ruins of memory" (cited in Cameron 2008, p. 5)
In the Reference List you only need to record the book that you actually sourced:
Cameron, A 2008, Modular Narratives in Contemporary Cinema, Palgrave Macmillan, Basingstoke, New York.
This is where the work of one author is cited in another author’s work.
Metcalf (2005, p. 184) propounded the idea that...
Metcalf, P 2005, Anthropology: the basics, Routledge, Abingdon.
Metcalf (2005, p. 184) argues that "the Nuer of southern Sudan lacked any institutions of governance; no chiefs or councils of elders, no armies or law enforcement"
Metcalf, P 2005, Anthropology: the basics, Routledge, Abingdon.
Include the quote within the paragraph and include specific page number/s.
Use quotation marks to show the exact words.
Much has been written about acute care. Finkelman (2006, p. 184), for example, points out that:
There are many changes in acute care services occurring almost daily, and due to the increasing use of outpatient surgery, surgical services have experienced major changes. Hospitals are increasing the size of their outpatient or ambulatory surgery departments and adjusting to the need of moving patients into and out of the surgical service in 1 day or even a few hours.
Recently, this trend has been seen in some Australian hospitals and research here…
Finkelman, AW 2006, Leadership and management in nursing, Pearson Hall, Upper Saddle River, NJ.
Begin quoting the material on a new line.
Indent it 5 spaces (use the Indent tool to keep all lines of the quote evenly indented).
Include specific page number/s.
Also, always include the page number(s) when drawing primarily on a particular page or section rather than referring to the source as a whole.
In-text use p. for a single page (Metcalf 2005, p. 45) and pp. for a page range e.g. (Metcalf 2005, pp. 34-36).
Omit quotation marks.
Use double spacing for your text and single spacing for the intended quote. Make sure the quote is exactly as it was published.
Cite the author, not the translator of the book in the in-text citation
"Morality..." (Nietzsche 1956, p. 27)
Nietzsche (1956, p. 27) argues that...
Give acknowledgement to the translator after the title:
Nietzsche, FW 1956, The birth of tragedy: and, The genealogy of morals, trans. F Golffing, Doubleday, Garden City, New York.