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University of Wollongong Australia

Referencing

Government publications | Footnoting

Act of Parliament

Footnotes

12. Fair Work Act 2009 (Cwlth) s70.

Bibliography

Fair Work Act 2009 (Cwlth) s70.

Notes

  • Most Acts and Ordinances have a short formal title that can be used in citations.
  • The form of citation is: Short Title of Act Year (abbreviation of jurisdiction) Pinpoint reference/section. i.e. The Copyright Act 1968 (Cwlth) s25. Note that no comma precedes the year in the formal citation.
  • It is recommended that all elements of the formal titles be shown in italics, including the date. i.e. Environment Protection and Biodiversity Conservation Act 1999.

Cases

Footnotes

12. Brandy v Human Rights and Equal Opportunity Commission (1995) 183 CLR 245.

Bibliography

Brandy v Human Rights and Equal Opportunity Commission (1995) 183 CLR 245.

Notes

  • The form of citation is: case name (date) volume number abbreviated name of report series beginning page of reference i.e. Blomley v. Ryan (1956) 99 CLR 362
  • Put the year in round brackets if the reports are organised by volume number, put the year in square brackets if the reports are organised by year.
  • Sometimes a specific page number is also required, in which case it should be cited as: Greutner v. Everard (1960) 103 CLR 177 at 181.
  • A decision can appear in more than one report series so more than one reference might be included. In the following example the High Court of Australia (HCA) and the Commonwealth Law Reports (CLR) have both cited the case:
  • Dietrich v R [1992] HCA 57; (1992) 177 CLR 292 (13 November 1992)
  • In the citation of criminal cases, in which the Crown is the prosecutor, R, which stands for Rex or Regina, is used i.e. R v. Haddock. However, if the Crown is the respondent, the citation is: Haddock v. The Queen
  • When first used in a text, an authority must be cited in full. An abbreviated form may then be added in brackets, and the case may be referred to in that manner from that point onwards i.e. The State of New South Wales v. The Commonwealth (1915) 20 CLR 54 (the Wheat Case).

Government report (print)

Footnotes

60. LE Edwards and JJ Pojeta, Fossils, Rocks, and Time, US Department of the Interior, US Geological Survey, 1997, p. 6.

Bibliography

Edwards, LE and JJ Pojeta, Fossils, Rocks, and Time, US Department of the Interior, US Geological Survey, 1997.

Government report (online)

Footnotes

41. Australian Council for Educational Research, Using television to improve learning opportunities for Indigenous children, Camberwell, Australian Council for Educational Research, 2010, <http://research.acer.edu.au/cgi/viewcontent.cgi?article=1020&context=indigenous_education>, viewed 10 January 2011.

Bibliography

Australian Council for Educational Research, Using television to improve learning opportunities for Indigenous children, Camberwell, Australian Council for Educational Research, 2010, <http://research.acer.edu.au/cgi/viewcontent.cgi?article=1020&context=indigenous_education>, viewed 10 January 2011.

Parliamentary debate, Hansard (print)

Footnotes

20. Australia, House of Representatives, Parliamentary Debates, vol. HR103, 2000, p. 9.

Bibliography

Australia, House of Representatives, Parliamentary Debates, vol. HR103, 2000, pp. 2-9.

Notes

  • For Parliamentary Debates include: Jurisdiction, Chamber Year, Parliamentary Debates, vol. date, page numbers.
  • The jurisdiction will be:
    • Victoria for Victorian Hansard
    • Australia for Commonwealth Hansard etc.
  • The Chamber will be:
    • Commonwealth - House of Representatives or Senate
    • Victoria – Legislative Assembly or Legislative Council

Parliamentary debate, Hansard (online)

Footnotes

20. Australia, House of Representatives, Parliamentary Debates, vol. HR103, 2000, p. 9.

Bibliography

Australia, House of Representatives, Parliamentary Debates, vol. HR103, 2000, pp. 2-9.

Notes​

  • See notes for print above. The online version should include the URL and viewed date to the end of the reference.

Parliamentary paper

Footnotes

21. Australia. Parliament, Australia and the International Financial Institutions 2007-08 Annual Report to the Parliament, Parl. Paper 12, Canberra, 2009, p. 9. 

Bibliography

Australia. Parliament, Australia and the International Financial Institutions 2007-08 Annual Report to the Parliament, Parl. Paper 12, Canberra, 2009. 

Notes

For Parliamentary Papers Include:

  • Country or State, Parliament, Title of report, Parliamentary Paper number (where available), Place of publication, date (where available), page numbers.
  • The online version should include the URL and viewed date to the end of the reference.

Standard

Footnotes

21. Australia. Parliament, Australia and the International Financial Institutions 2007-08 Annual Report to the Parliament, Parl. Paper 12, Canberra, 2009, p. 9.

Bibliography

Australia. Parliament, Australia and the International Financial Institutions 2007-08 Annual Report to the Parliament, Parl. Paper 12, Canberra, 2009. 

Notes

  • The online version should include the URL and viewed date to the end of the reference.

Statistics (print)

Footnotes

58. Australian Bureau of Statistics, Australian Social Trends, September 2010, cat. no. 4102.0, ABS, Canberra, 2010, p. 10.

Bibliography

Australian Bureau of Statistics, Australian Social Trends, September 2010, cat. no. 4102.0, ABS, Canberra, 2010.

Statistics (online)

Footnotes

59. Australian Bureau of Statistics, Australian Social Trends, September 2010, cat. no. 4102.0, ABS, Canberra, 2010, <http://www.ausstats.abs.gov.au//$File/ 41020_ASTSep2010_reissue.pdf>, viewed 23 October 2010. 

Bibliography

Australian Bureau of Statistics, Australian Social Trends, September 2010, cat. no. 4102.0, ABS, Canberra, 2010, <http://www.ausstats.abs.gov.au//$File/ 41020_ASTSep2010_reissue.pdf>, viewed 23 October 2010.

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