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|Abbreviation||Book or publication part|
|ed. (full stop include)||editor|
|eds (because the abbreviation includes the last letter of the word there is no need to include a full stop)||editors|
|edn (because the abbreviation includes the last letter of the word there is no need to include a full stop)||edition|
|et al.||and others|
|trans.||translator or translated by|
|ibid||From the Latin 'ibidem' meaning 'in the same place'|
|p.||a single page e.g. p.32|
|pp.||plural pages e.g. p. 32-45. If information is scattered throughout the book or article, use passim (Latin term for 'scattered')|
Footnote: 3. DR Snow, Archaeology of native North America, Prentice Hall, Boston, 2010, p. 67.
Bibliography: Snow, DR, Archaeology of native North America, Prentice Hall, Boston, 2010.
A Blackledge & A Creese, Multilingualism: a critical perspective, Continuum, London, New York, 2010, p. 29.
PJ Nguyen, 'A study of the Woiwurrung language', Australian Journal of Indigenous Life, vol. 22, no. 3, 2009, p. 99.
Hirst claimed that "the worst sectarian violence in our history occurred in Melbourne in 1846 when Catholic and Protestant mobs fired on each other on the anniversary of the Battle of the Boyne".4
4. Hirst, J, Sense and nonsense in Australian history, Black Inc. Melbourne, 2006.
Historians of the post-war period have noted the rapid expansion of government-funded education, particularly of university education, and the social changes that sprang from this:
Ironically, Menzies's commitment to education had produced a large population of university students, often schooled in the critique of the new social sciences and whose affluence and idealism made them ready and eager to overthrow the old order associated with Menzies and Calwell. Across the country the old concern to preserve the status quo, to conserve uniformity, to safeguard the Australian way of life and the family home from subversion was giving way to demands for change.1
1. P Grimshaw, M Lake, A McGrath and M Quartly, Creating a Nation, McPhee Gribble, Ringwood, 1994, p. 300.
In the 1980's there was a growing demand for RF (Islamic) banking in the West.
The effort to provide RF financial services was pioneered by Al Barak Bank in London in 1988, when it tried to come up with a home financing contract that would fit the requirements of the banking law in the West... This resulted in the birth of a new "Islamic" financing model based on the lease-to purchase model (Al Ijara Wal Tamaluk or Ijarah Wal Iqtina – these Arabic terms both mean lease to own).12
12. Y Abdul-Rahman, The art of Islamic banking and finance: tools and techniques for community-based banking. John Wiley & Sons, Hoboken, 2010, p. 206.
The Revolution of 1688-89 was... of great importance for the history of liberty, in England and elsewhere. Later generations saw it as the cornerstone of their liberties – an MP referred to the Bill of Rights as "our original contract" as early as 1690 (Grey 1769, pp. 75-76) -- and used it to validate their claims for greater liberty.
The idea that the Bill of Rights guaranteed liberty can be traced back to debate in the House of Commons in 1690.12
12. J Miller, `Crown, Parliament and People' in JR Jones (ed.), Liberty Secured? Britain before and after 1688, Stanford University Press, Stanford, 1992, p. 86.