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APA7 Guide

In text citation

  • For three or more authors, cite the first author’s name followed by et al. for all in-text citations. Do not use ‘et al.’ in the reference list.
  • Many books do not have a DOI as they have only been published in hard copy. In these cases, you do not have to list a DOI, simply leave it blank. If the book is a digital source and you need to identify the DOI, you can do so by searching for it at

In instances when there are multiple works published in the same year by the same first author with several other authors:

  • It might be necessary to include the names of two or more of these authors before ‘et al.’, for example, if you are citing 2020 publications by: (1) Carpenter, Walton, and Marland; and (2) Carpenter, Dearlove, and Walton.
  • You need to provide enough names in the citation to distinguish the two publications, e.g., (1) should be cited as (Carpenter, Marland et al. 2020), while (2) should be cited as (Carpenter, Dearlove et al. 2020)
  • Because the 2nd and subsequent authors are not the same or are listed in a different order, the use of 2020a and 2020b is not appropriate in this instance (see entry for ‘Multiple works published in the same year by the same author’).



            (First Author et al., Year)


            First Author et al. (Year)

For example:

There are different ways of categorising different types of knowledge (Rolfe et al., 2011).

Savage et al. (2005) note that the migrant experience is one that is experienced by many.

Direct quote (page number/s must be included)


            (First Author et al., Year, p./pp. Page number/s)


            First Author et al. (Year, p./pp. Page number/s)

For example:

“A major problem for philosophers with the idea of empirical knowledge is how we can be sure that any knowledge gained through the senses is true or accurate” (Rolfe et al., 2010, p.23).

As Savage et al. (2005, p. 28) argue, “the experience of immigration can be difficult".

Reference list


Author A. A., & Author B. B., & Author C. C. (Year). Title of Book. Publisher.

  • Include DOI (if available) or URL for online books.

For example:

Three or More Authors without DOI:

Rolfe, G., Jasper, M., & Freshwater, D. (2010). Critical reflection in practice: Generating knowledge for care (2nd ed.). Palgrave Macmillan.

Three or More Authors with DOI:

Reeves, S., Alexanian, J., Kendall-Gallagher, D., Dorman, T., & Kitto, S. (2018). Collaborative practice in critical care settings: A workbook. Routledge.