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APA7 Guide

In text citations

In-text citations are required whenever you are using the work or ideas of someone else, including when you are paraphrasing or quoting them.

Paraphrasing is the preferred method of using someone else’s work or ideas. However, paraphrasing is much more than simply re-arranging another person’s words. Rather, it is demonstrating that you understand the idea that you are citing and can express it in your own words.

Quoting is where you use the exact words from another person’s work and cite it. Do this when it is important to use the exact words from the original in order to make your point. Generally speaking, it is better to paraphrase an idea, as this demonstrates that you understand the idea. As a rule of thumb, no more than 10% of your total citations should be quotations.


The information required for an in-text citation to support a paraphrase is the author and the year of publication. Page numbers are not required for a paraphrase, but can be included to assist the reader to locate the specific instance of information within a long or complex work, such as a book, or if you have been asked to do so. The citation can be presented in an information prominent or author prominent format (see next section).


The information required for an in-text citation to support a quotation is the author, the year of publication and the page number/s from which the quotation has been taken. This information can be presented in the information prominent or author prominent format (see below).

Quotations should always be accompanied, where possible, with a direct reference to the location of the quote inside the source. This is best achieved by listing a page number/s.

  • Page number/s are always denoted by “p.” for one page, and “pp.” for multiple pages.
  • When listing a range of page numbers, you should list the first page number and the last page number separated by a hyphen. For example: “pp. 76-93”.