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APA7 Guide

In text citation

  • For two authors, cite both last names in in-text citations.
  • Many books do not have a DOI as they have only been published in hard copy. In these cases, you do not have to list a DOI, simply leave it blank.
  • If the book is a digital source and you need to identify the DOI, you can do so by searching for it at
  • When citing two authors in a sentence separate their last names using the word ‘and’. However, when listing them inside brackets or in a reference (either as an in-text citation or in the reference list) you should separate their last names using the ampersand symbol – & – instead.



            (Author & Author, Year)


            Author and Author (Year)

For example:

Studies of the behaviour of finches on Daphne Major have found that in many cases misimprinted birds mated and hybridised (Grant & Grant, 2008).

Curthoys and Docker (2010) argue that history has fundamentally fictive and literary qualities.

Direct quote (page number/s must be included)


            (Author & Author, Year, p./pp. Page number/s)


            Author and Author (Year, p./pp. Page number/s)

For example:

Grant and Grant (2008, p. 78) found that "individuals can discriminate between members of their own and a closely related sympatric species on the basis of song and beak morphology.”.

“We also recognise that history’s doubleness, its divided character from its very beginning, means that it is also frequently at war with itself” (Curthoys & Docker, 2010, p. 11).

Reference list


Author, A. A., & Author, B. B. (Year). Title of the book. Publisher Name.


Author, A. A., & Author, C. C. (year). Title of the book. Publisher Name. OR http://xxxx.

For example:

Two Authors without DOI:

Grant, P. R., & Grant, B. R. (2008). How and why species multiply: The radiation of Darwin’s finches. Princeton University Press.

Two Authors with DOI:

Mahoney, L. M., & Tang T. (2017).  Strategic social media: From marketing to social change (1st ed.). John Wiley Sons.