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APA7 Guide

In text citation

  • When an archived or fixed version of the work is available (as in the Beyer example below) a retrieval date is not needed.
  • When the work is continuously updated (as in the Merriam-Webster example below) a retrieval date is required.
  • Often there is no identifiable author, as in the Merriam-Webster example below. In these cases list the name of the entry in place of the author.
  • DOIs can be identified using Not all books have a DOI



            (Author, Year)


            Author (Year)

For example:

Edmund Husserl was a highly influential and successful philosopher working in the 20th century (Beyer, 2018).

Merriam-Webster (2018) defines referencing as establishing the source of your information in your writing.

Direct quote (page number/s must be included)


            (Author, Year, p./pp. Page number/s)


            Author (Year, p./pp. Page number/s)

For example:

“He has made important contributions to almost all areas of philosophy and anticipated central ideas of its neighbouring disciplines” (Beyer, 2018).

According to Merriam-Webster (n.d.), referencing can be defined as “the act of mentioning something in speech or in writing”.

Reference list


Author A.A., & Author, B. B. OR title of entry (year). Title of the work. Retrieved Day Month Year. http://xxxx

Author, A. A., & Author, B. B. (year). Title of chapter. In E. E. Editor (Ed.), Title of book. Publisher Name. OR http://xxxx

For example:

Reference, (n.d.). Merriam-Webster Dictionary. Retrieved 29 November 2021.

Beyer, C. (2018). Edmund Husserl, In E. N. Zalta (Ed.). The Stanford encyclopedia of philosophy (Summer 2018 ed.). Stanford University.