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University of Wollongong Australia


UOW Harvard

The Harvard referencing style is also known as the "author date" system because you must cite both the author and publication date. 

The prominence of the author and date of publication in a reference list provides a clear indication of the credibility and currency of the resources used in your research. There is no definitive version of Harvard available.

The UOW style of referencing is based on the AGPS Harvard version: 

Style manual for authors, editors and printers 2002, 6th edn, John Wiley, Milton, Qld.

The UOW Harvard Referencing Style has two main components:

In-text references/citations

When you refer to another author’s work in your writing you must cite your source in the body of your paper by providing the last name(s) of the author(s), the year of publication and, where applicable, page number(s).

Do not include the author(s) initial.

The reference list

A list at the end of your assignment which includes full details of each source you have cited in your writing.

Sources are listed in alphabetical order by the author’s last name.

In-text referencing

There are two main ways to present in-text references, or citations:

1) Information prominent

Where the focus is on the information from your source.

You give prominence to the information by placing the reference at the end of your sentence in brackets.

For example,

"the Nuer of southern Sudan lacked any..." (Metcalf 2005, p. 184)

"The experience of ..." (Savage, Bagnall & Longhurst 2005, p. 28)

2) Author prominent

Where the focus is on the author(s) of your source.

You give prominence to the author by placing the reference in the body of your sentence, with the author’s name incorporated into the sentence structure and the date in brackets.

For example,

Metcalf (2005, p. 184) claims that "the Nuer of southern Sudan lacked any institutions of governance; no chiefs or councils of elders, no armies or law enforcement"

Savage, Bagnall and Longhurst (2005, p. 28) argue that "..."

Multiple authors as sources for a single point

Usually used in the information prominent format.

You can indicate more than one source as evidence for a point by citing multiple sources.  These should be listed in alphabetical order, separated by a semi-colon inside parentheses.

For example,

Transition to university involves a temporal-relational situational context (Biesta & Tedder 2007; Embirbayer & Mische 1998). 


Page Numbers

Always include page numbers when you:

  • Quote word for word
  • Summarise or paraphrase an idea from a specific page or pages
  • Refer to tables, figures, images or present specific information like dates/statistics.

Quotation Marks

The Harvard (AGPS) and Footnoting (Oxford) manual recommends using SINGLE quotation marks around any direct quote. If you use Turnitin, be sure to enclose all direct quotes in DOUBLE quotation marks because Turnitin recognises only the text enclosed in double quotation marks as a direct quote.

In this guide, all Author-Date (Harvard) AND Footnoting direct quote examples are presented within double quotation marks.

Reference list

A reference list appears in alphabetical order at the end of your work. Many people confuse the terms ‘reference list’ and ‘bibliography’:

  • A reference list includes ONLY the sources that you have CITED/REFERENCED in the body of your work.
  • A bibliography includes the sources you cited plus any additional resources you may have consulted in your research.

This is an example of a reference list:

Blair, DJ 1996, ‘Beyond the metaphor: football and war, 1914-1918’, Journal of the Australian War Memorial, no.28, viewed 15 May 2007,

Department of Veterans’ Affairs 2006, Helpful Links to Veteran Related Sites, viewed 10 August 2006,

Dolnicar, S, Crouch, GI & Long, P 2008, ‘Environment-friendly tourists: what do we really know about them?’, Journal of Sustainable Tourism, vol.16, no. 2, pp. 197-210.

Dolnicar, S & Hurliman, A 2010, ‘Australians’ water conservation behaviours and attitudes’, Australian Journal of Water Resources, vol. 14, no. 6, pp. 43-53.

A history of reclamation in the west 2000, History Program, Bureau of Reclamation, Salt Lake City, Utah.

Malinowski, W, Larsen, AA, Ngu, B & Fairweather, S 1999, Human geography, Routledge, New York.

Preston, AC 1990a, Multivariate analysis of nurses’ absence behaviour, Business Research and Development Fund of the Confederation of Western Australian Industry, East Perth, WA.

Preston, AC 1990b, Theories and causes of labour absence: reconciling the economic and psychology approaches, Business Research and Development Fund of the Confederation of Western Australian Industry, East Perth, WA.

Rose, DB 2002, ‘Good hunters’, in Country of the heart: an Indigenous Australian homeland, Aboriginal Studies Press for the Australian Institute of Aboriginal and Torres Strait Islander Studies, Canberra, pp. 77- 113.


  1. Always check with your academic to determine what is required for your particular assignment.
  2. If there are multiple works by the same author in your reference list, put the earliest date first.
  3. Make sure the author details and year in the in-text citation exactly match the entry in the reference list.

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