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In text citation

This section applies when multiple works have been published by the same author or same group of authors in the same year.

  • If an author (or identical set of authors) has published more than one work in the same year, you need to make it clear in the in-text citation which work is being cited.
  • To do this, a lower-case letter (a, b, c etc) is added to the year of publication in both the in-text citation and the reference list entry for each work, e.g., 2005a, 2005b etc.
  • To decide which book is Year a, Year b etc, use the first letter of the title of the work to arrange them according to title alphabetical order:
    • e.g., for two books by the same author published in 2005 titled Study of eggs and Horse racing etiquette, Horse racing etiquette would be 2005a as and Study of eggs would be 2005b because H (for Horse) is closer to the start of the alphabet than S (for Study).



(Author’s last name, Year of publication a)


Manne (2005b) argued that the corporate media power is exceeding acceptable levels.


Manne (2005a, 2005b) argued that popular newspapers often report without bias.

Direct quote


(Author’s last name, Year of publication a, p. Page number)


"In the last 10 years Australia has experienced a number of incidents" (Manne 2005a, p. 1).

Reference list


Author’s last name, Author’s initials Year of publication Alphabetically ordered lower case letter, Book title, Edition number edn, Publisher, Location of publication.

  • In the reference list place the lower case letter directly after the date (without a space between them).


Manne, R (ed.) 2005a, Do not disturb: is the media failing Australia?, Black Inc., Melbourne.

Manne, R 2005b, Left right left: political essays 1977-2005, Black Inc., Melbourne.